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2009高三培优阅读理解

外语  加入时间:2009-03-09  余金  点击:33212  评论数:

 

             

----余金

作者介绍:余 金,新二网皇冠手机网英语高级教师,自治区优秀教师,乌鲁木齐市优秀班主任,新二网皇冠手机网学科带头人。2004年,乌鲁木齐区理科状元朱江同学的班主任老师,乌鲁木齐区文科状元刘莉同学的英语老师。2005年,留学于英国南部港口城市波恩茅斯EF国际语言学院;多年来一直从事高中实验班英语教学、中学生英语能力竞赛辅导工作。所辅导郭欣、文鑫,张艺娜,王希、刘莉、朱江、方程、李新、于璐、李聪、潘梦、杨梦琦、欧阳舒馨等同学获全国一等、多人获全国二等、三等奖及自治区一、二、三等奖。所教班级高考成绩一直名列前茅。为清华北大等名校培养出一批批优秀学生。具备扎实的专业功底、丰富的教育教学经验。现正从事自治区重点课题《新课程理念下的中学英语阅读》的研究。

第一讲:考情分析

阅读理解题旨在全面检测考生从语篇中获取有效信息的能力,测试对语段主旨大意、事实细节、逻辑关系等方面能力及理解的准确程度。 “外语教学要在语段(discourse)中使用语言,才能培养出交际能力来”。自然外语测试也只有在语篇中才能真正检测出交际能力。因此,高考英语越来越重视对考生阅读能力的考查。认真研读近几年高考阅读理解题,我们不难发现其共同特点:文章都是五篇,其所选材料的题材、体裁多样,均取材于英文原版书籍,语言地道、内容新颖,文化意味浓厚;其试题设计均重语篇理解,与以前的高考试题相比,命题者很明显加大了阅读理解试题的考查强度。其主要测试内容有:

1.       概括全文主旨大意,以及用以说明主旨和大意的事实和细节;

2.       既要准确的理解具体的事实,也要理解抽象的概念;   

3.       既要准确的理解语句的字面意思,也要理解深层含义,包括作者的态度、意图等;

4.       既理解某句、某段的意义,也理解全篇的逻辑关系,并据此进行推理和判断。

5.       既能根据材料所提供的信息,也能结合中学生应有的常识去正确判断生词和短语的含义。
下面是近5年高考阅读理解实体有关数据的统计分析:

 

2004---2008阅读理解题考点分布情况统计

  

 

 

容 

 

2004

 

2005

 

2006

 

2007

 

2008

 

合计

 

所占比例

主旨大意

3

2

5

4

3

17

17%

事实细节

5

6

8

6

6

31

28%

推理判断 

10

9

6

9

10

44

42%

词义猜测

2

3

1

1

1

8

13%



 
(一)近几年高考英语阅读理解测试新动向及命题规律:

通过对上表数据的分析和对今年高考阅读理解题的对比研究,我们发现高考阅读理解有以下特点:

1.       考查重点。从上表可以看出推理判断和事实细节题是阅读理解的考查重点,共占65%。其中,推理判断题为重中之重,平均每年考查7题左右,占37%。这是因为近几年阅读理解题加大了对篇章结构的把握及对深层次信息理解的考查力度,侧重检测考生对语篇的整体理解能力,侧重考查考生根据语境提示,综合利用有效信息解决实际问题的能力。

 

2.       阅读的词汇量增加,越来越强调提高阅读速度。
近年来,高考五篇文章的阅读总词汇量一直保持着递增的趋势,这就意味着考生在有限的时间内完成这样的阅读量,必须提高阅读速度。

 

3.  文章的生词量增多
文章的生词量增多,主要表现在由构词法产生的新词和教学大纲不作要求   的生词增多。这就导致阅读材料文字难度增大,考生往往要反复几遍才能读懂。再加之材料行文表达使用比较正式的语言,结构复杂的长句及省略和插入语等较复杂的语言现象在文章中随处可见。这不仅减慢了阅读速度,而且也影响了根据文章内容去进行推理和判断。

4.       题材特点:题材面宽,贴近生活,保持原汁原味。
近几年的高考阅读文章选材更贴近生活实际、语言地道,原汁原味,更富有时代气息;题材新颖,包括故事、传记、人物、传说、生活常识、社会文化、风俗习惯、天文、史地、科普知识、政治、经济及名人逸事等。体裁也不一样,有记叙文、说明文、议论文、应用文等。而且文章多是属于原汁原味的文章,其中文章习语用得较多,涉及英美人的文化生活习惯。

5.        深层理解及推理判断型题持续增加
 
一篇文章围绕一个中心,或者是某一话题展开,文中绝大部分的篇幅都围绕这个主题来说明它,反映它。弄清细节,获取信息是正确把握主旨中心的前提。在以往的高考试题中,往往掌握文中细节的直接理解在试题中所占比例较大。但在近些年的高考试题中已明显减少,而推理、判断、综合类试题大大增加了。要求考生能从字里行间理解文章的深层含义,即作者的态度、意图、倾向等,而且能把握全篇的文脉,即句与句、段与段之间的关系,并且能据此进行合乎逻辑的推理和判断。

(二) 近几年高考阅读的主要考点:
高考阅读题通常分为两大类:客观性理解试题,即考查短文大意的试题,事实细节描述题,短文、句子、短语、单词意义理解题;主观性试题,即通过阅读文章,对文章的中心思想、立意主旨、作者观点、态度等有更深入的理解。一般说来,高考阅读理解对考生的测试角度表现在以下几个方面

1.
猜测词义
 
这类试题要求考生能根据上下文正确理解灵活多变的词义。在做这类题时,应对上下文中已知部分进行逻辑上的推理,必要时还要进行语法分析,尤其是词与词之间的关系,有时还要依据常识和经验进行猜测。

2.理解主旨大意
一篇文章通常是围绕着一个中心思想展开的。阅读时,我们不可忽视短文中开头和结尾的段落或句子的含义。因为它们往往是文章中心的概括和总结。对于没有明显主题句的文章段落要根据文段中所陈述的事实或提供的线索加以概括总结,从而判断出四个选项中哪一个为最佳选择,说明了文章的中心。
3. 
推理判断
这类试题要求考生能通过文章表面文字信息去推测文章隐含的意思,要求考生对文章的情节发展,以及作者的态度、意图等做出合乎逻辑的推理和判断。
4. 
文章的细节理解

事实细节题主要考查对文章或某一段落中某些特定细节或文章的重要事实的辨认能力。事实细节题目常见的设问方式:

(1). Which of the following is true/ false/ mentioned?

(2). What does the writer pay least attention to?

(3). Choose the right order of the events given in the passage?

(4). All of the following statements may be true except_____.

(5). Which of the following is not the result of?

5.  数据推算

数字计算提主要出现在科普类和新闻报道类文章中,一般涉及到年代、人物年龄、事件、作者观点等方面的数字计算。 此类问题要求考生能根据阅读材料中给出的有关数字或信息,通过整理、运算得出正确结论。弄清各个数字之间的逻辑关系,选准要比较的数字;弄清单元换算方式,确定计算方法,快速解决问题。

(三) 提高阅读理解能力的具体办法:
  1.
注意扩大词汇量
 
阅读是理解和吸收书面信息的能力。应该说,词汇量越大,掌握的词汇    

越多,阅读的基础就越好。所以我们要采取多种手段并尽可能快地扩大自己的词汇量。另外,阅读各种题材、体裁的文章的同时也会迅速地扩大我们的词汇量。
2.
掌握一定的英语文化背景知识
研究和实践表明,背景知识在阅读过程中起着非常重要的作用。阅读时若缺乏相关的背景知识,阅读就会很困难;反之,若具有相关的背景知识,阅读就会变得简单。比如,遇到物理、化学方面的文章,理科的学生读起来要比文科的学生省力。同样,文科的学生在历史、政治等方面占有一定的优势。可见,学生的背景知识越丰富,阅读理解题做得就越好。特定的文化产生了各具特色的语言背景。把英语作为外语来学习的学生除具备一定的英美历史和语言文学知识外,还要了解和熟悉一些讲英语的国家的生活习惯、文化背景、风土人情与生活方式等,为提高阅读质量打下基础。
3.
掌握构词法。
应掌握一些构词方法,如词缀法、转换法、合词法、逆成法及缩略法等。例如:常见的前缀: ab- 表脱离,反常absent,缺席的 abnormal不正规的 anti-反、防、抗 Antarctic , antifascist 反法西斯主义bi- 双、bicycle bigamy重婚(罪);by-旁、副、非正式 byname别名 byproduct 副产品byroad 小路; co-共同、相互cooperation合作 comate同伴 post-postwar, postscript编后记;pre- prehistoric 史前的, pro- 向前、领先、代替、赞成 progress,进步 procurator代理人等。另外在词汇复习过程中,不仅要注意词汇的表面含义,而且要注意到词汇背后所蕴含的社会历史、文字艺术等语言文化知识。因为词义反映了一定的客观世界和社会实践,它们还随社会文化、民族习惯、语言环境、社会发展等因素而变化。
4.
改掉不良的阅读习惯。
在英语阅读过程中,有一些不良的阅读习惯必须改掉。如:用手指、笔、尺子等指着单词进行阅读,这样会影响阅读速度,还容易忽略了文章所反映的信息内容;“声读”也是一种不良的阅读习惯,有关专家研究发现,一个人的默读速度是他声读速度的两倍。“声读”不仅影响了阅读速度,更不利于理解文章所表达的信息。
5.
平时训练时,选材要广泛,体裁多样。
选材时,注意做到题材广泛、体裁多样,要面广,内容要丰富。它们主要包括新闻、电影、书信、评论、广告、幽默故事、人物传记、科普常识、史地资料、旅游杂记、风土人情等。
6.
培养逻辑推理能力。
阅读一篇短文时,准确地认知文章所表达的信息,只是阅读的初步要求。把握上下文的逻辑关系,领会文中的有关暗示,推敲其特定的内涵,洞察其深层意义,推断作者的“言外之意”,则是阅读的高层次的要求。一般来说,作者不可能把他所要表达的全部思想和内容都体现在字面的意思上,很多内容是需要在阅读时通过思考、推理才能正确理解的。逻辑推理就是指在阅读时,根据自己已有的各方面知识以及篇章上下文所出现的某些信息,推导判断出隐含在文章中但没有表达出来的意思。逻辑推理能力是提高阅读能力的一种必不可少的基本技能。在做逻辑推理判断时,不能脱离文章的主旨,凭空想象,一定要言之有理,言之有据。
如:
“…One day, Merlin received an invitation to attend a fancy dress ball. He was very pleased and a little excited. As the day of the party came near, Merlin began to think how to make a grand entrance at the party. He had an idea. He thought he would get a lot of attention if he could skate into the room. Merlin tried different ways to make himself roll. Finally, he decided to put two wheels under each shoe. These were the first roller skates.…”
问题:Merlin put wheels under his shoes in order to ______.
A. impress the party guests            B. arrive at the party sooner
C. test his invention                  D. show his skill in walking on wheels.
 
该题要求透过表面的文字信息去推测文章的隐含意义。我们可以从“Merlin began to think how to make a grand entrance at the party.”和“He thought he would get a lot of attention if he could skate into the room.”中看出,Merlin把滚轮置于鞋下,用滚轴溜冰的方式进入晚会厅,其目的是为了给参加晚会的人留下深刻的印象,所以答案为A.

第二讲:几种阅读试题的突破
一、 数字计算题突破。

数字计算提主要出现在科普类和新闻报道类文章中,一般涉及到年代、人物年龄、事件、作者观点等方面的数字计算。此类问题要求考生能根据阅读材料中给出的有关数字或信息,通过整理、运算得出正确结论。弄清各个数字之间的逻辑关系,选准要比较的数字;弄清单元换算方式,确定计算方法,快速解决问题。例如:

Passage1. Say you are a 17th century construction worker who has worked long and hard to build a splendid tower for the dead wife of your emperor.

First, there is the emperor of northern India, Shah Johan, also called the king of the World. In 1612, Shah Johan married Mumtaz Mahal. Madly in love, they had 14 children over the next 20 years. But then sadness came. As Mumtaz was about to give birth to number 14, she said she had heard her unborn baby cry out. It was a sign of death. And as Mumtaz lay dying, she asked Johan to build a lasting memorial to celebrate their love. (2004 NMET B)

61. We learn from the text that Mumtaz probably died in ________.

A. 1626      B. 1632    C. 1634     D. 1653

做这类题只需找出相关的数字信息即可解决。文中提到1612Mumtaz 结婚,其后的20年里它生下14个孩子,生第14个孩子是死去1612+20=1632。所已选B

Passage2 New York, 10 November-- 5:27pm, yesterday. Biggest power failure in the citys history.

☼ Thousands of people got stuck in lifts. Martin Saltman spent three hours between the 21st and 22nd floors of the Empire State Building.There were twelve of us. But no one panicked. We passed the time telling stories and playing word games. One man wanted to smoke but we didn’t let him. Firemen finally got us out.

It was the best thing we have ever had, said Angela Carraro, who runs an Italian restaurant on 42nd Street. We had lots of candles on the tables and the waiters were carrying candles on their trays. The places was full--- and all night, in fact, for after we had closed, we let the people stay on and spend the night here.

☼ The zoos had their problems like everyone else. Keeper worked through the night. They used blankets to keep flying squirrels and small monkeys warm. While zoos had problems keeping warm. Supermarkets had problems keeping cool. All of our ice cream and frozen foods melted,said the manager of a store in downtown Manhattan. They were worth $ 50,000.

The big electric clock in the lobby(大厅)of started ticking(滴答)again at 5:25 this morning. It was almost on time. NMET 2000 A篇)

57. How long did the power failure last?

A. Nearly 12 hours                   B. More than 12 hours

C. Nearly 24 hours                   D. More than 24 hours

分析:停电从“昨天”下午的527到今天早晨的525分,接近12小时。所以选A

 

Passage3 There are different ways in which people try to deal with the problem of energy. One was is the greater production of common energy sources, such as coal, oil and gas. The trouble with these sources, however, is that they are not renewable.

Another was is energy conservation(节能)which means using energy more efficiently. In some cold countries people build special houses to save energy.       Finally, renewable energy sources are used even though they are often expensive to develop. One form of these is geothermal energy. In certain parts of the world the temperature of the earth increases thirty degrees centigrade with each kilometer down. (NMET1994D)

75. How many ways of dealing with the energy problem are discussed in the text?

   A. Two    B. Three     C. Fore     D. Five

76. At a place where the surface temperature is 15 degrees centigrade, how deep do you have to dig so as to get a temperature of 75 degrees centigrade?

   A. One km   B. Two km    C. Three km    D. Four km.

75题选B项;80从 the temperature of the earth increases thirty degrees centigrade with each kilometer down. 可知,每下降1公里,温度增加30度,所以要在地表温度为15度的地区,使其温度增加到75度需向下挖两公里,所以选B项。

 

Passage4: In 1959, an ordinary American family paid $989 for a years supply of food. In 1972 the family paid $1331. Why does food cost so much?

56. There was a price increase of _______ in the United States from the year 1959 to 1972 

A. about fifty percent            B. about twenty percent

C. nearly one-third              D. nearly two-thirds

分析:根据文中数字算出选C

Passage5 Benin is one of the smallest Africa states. It lies in West Africa on the Gulf of Guines, to the south of Burkina Faso and Niger, between Togo on the west and Nigeria on the coast.

   Benin used to be called Dahomey and was controlled and ruled by France from 1893 to 1960, when it became independent. In 1963 the army general Soglo overthrew the first president Maga. Soglo set up army government and called himself head of state in 1965, but was overthrew and replaced by a civilian government in 1967. In December 1969 Benin had another change of power with the army again taking over. In May 1970, Maga and two other men set up a new government, with each of them acting as president in turn for two years. However, half a year after Maga turned over power to the second man Ahomadegbe, the three-man government was overthrown by the army once more and General Kerekou became president. In November 1975 Kerekou changed the name of the nation from Dahomey to Benin, Benin being the name of a 17th century kingdom covering the same place. Kerekou also announced that Benin would be a Peoples Republic based on Marxism-Leninism.

70. For how long was Benin under France?

   A. For over a century       B. For roughly a century

   C. For over half a century   D. Under half a century

71. For how long was Benin an independent state before it became a Peoples Republic?

   A. 15 years   B. 25 years     C. 20 years    D. 30 years

分析:据文中年代,很容易得出70C1960- 1893= 67年);71A1975-1960=15年)


二、 文章的中心思想及段落大意。
  文章的中心思想是全篇文章的核心。它体现作者的基本观点、态度和意图。作者是通过多种手段告诉我们文章中心思想的。一般来说,含有中心思想的“主题句”会出现在文首,也就是说,作者先在篇章的开头就点出中心,

然后再作进一步的扩展和论说。如:Every city and town must have water. The people in a town need water to drink. They need water for other uses, too. They use water for bathing and for washing things.这段文字中的第一句就是主题句,后面是对它的扩展。有时候,作者为说明或论证一个较难理解的观点,也可能先举例说明,然后再提出自己的观点,也就是说,把主题句放在文尾。有时,主题句既不在文首,也不在文尾,而是在文章的中间,或者是隐含在篇章中,需要通过阅读,自己总结出来。在平时阅读时应有意地在这方面加以训练。

主旨大意题旨在考察考生把握全文主题和理解中心思想的能力,同时考查考生的归纳概括能力。这类试题包括要求考生选出短文的标题(title, headline)、短文或段落的主题(subject)、中心思想(main idea )、作者的写作目的(purpose)等。这类体的设问方式主要有:

1.       The subject of the passage / paragraph is ________

2.       The main idea of the passage/ paragraph is _______

3.       The text is mainly about ________

4.       The passage mainly centers on ________

5.       Whats the subject discussed in the text?

6.       What does the second paragraph mainly about?

7.       What is the main point the writer is trying to make in the last paragraph?

8.       The best headline for this newspaper article would be______

9.       The writers purpose in writing this story is ______.

10.   The writer wrote the story in order to ______.

1、主题句的确定

(1)      正三角形结构:即主题句出现在文首。开门见山、提出主题,随之用细节来解释、支撑或发展句子所表达的中心思想。

E.g. The panda is a popular animal. Stories about the panda in the Washington Zoo are always front-page news and important features on television newscasts. Stuffed (填充式的)pandas are among the most popular toys for children. And panda postcards are always in demand in zoo gift shop.

Q: The main idea of the passage is that________.

A. the panda is a popular animal   B. the panda is on TV

C. stuffed pandas are the most popular toys for children

D. panda postcards are always in demand in zoo

分析:答案A 文中提到的stories about the panda; stuffed pandaspanda postcards实际上都是文章的细节,是用来说明一个问题:The panda is a popular animal.

 JINTAN, JIANGSU: The 20 students—18boys and 2 girls—had a thousand reasons to be proud of themselves. They had just climbed their way to the top rung out of 4 million students taking part in the Fifth National Hua Luogeng Gold Mathematics Contest on Tuesday evening.

 The 20 gold medal winners are all primary and middle school students under the age of 14.

Many of the problems are of college level and these pupils can figure them out. It is just unbelievable! said a teacher from Guangdong province.

Named after Chinas most famous mathematician, Hua Laogeng, the contest started in 1986, one year after his death. In less than 10 years, it has been recognized by the State Education Commission (国家教委) as the countrys biggest and the best contest of its kind.

This news story is mainly about________.

A. when the contest started      B. How the contest got its name

C. the 20 pupils who have won gold medals in the contest

D. the 5th National Hua Laogeng Gold Mathematics Contest

分析:答案为D. 本文是一篇新闻报道,整篇文章涉及到数学竞赛的时间、地点、结果及相关的历史回顾,但这些信息全部围绕“第五届全国华罗庚杯数学竞赛”这一主题展开。

 

(2)      倒三角形结构:即主题句出现在文末,在表述细节后,在文末归纳要点、得出结论、提出建议、以概括主题。

E.g. On the Internet, we can read news at home and abroad and get as much information as we can. We often send e-mail or make telephone calls to our family as well as to our friends by Internet. Whats more, we can go to school on the net, read a lot of books and even teach ourselves foreign languages. We also enjoy music, watch ball matches on the net and play computer games. With the help of the net, we can do shopping even without leaving our homes. The Internet is playing a more and important part in our daily life.

What is the main idea of the passage?

A. Keep away from the Internet     B. Surf the net

C. The Internet is playing an important part in our daily life

D. We can entertain ourselves on the Internet.

分析:答案为D. 文章最后一句话点明主题。A (远离网络)与主题不符;B项(上网)过于笼统;C项(网上娱乐)只不过是短文的一个细节,不全面。

 

(全国卷)In 1901, H.G. Wells, an English writer, wrote a book describing a trip to the moon. When the explorers landed on the moon, they discovered that the moon was full of underground cities. They expressed their surprise to the moon people they met. In turn, the moon people expressed their surprise. Why, they asked, are you traveling to our space when you do not even use your inner space?

H.G.Wells could only imagine travel to the moon. In 1969, human beings really did land on the moon. People today know that there are no underground cities on the moon. However, the question that the moon people asked is still an interesting one. A growing number of scientists are seriously thinking about it.

Underground systems are already in place. Many cities have underground car parks. In some cities, such as Tokyo, Seoul and Montreal, there are large underground shopping areas. The Chunnel, a tunnel connecting England and France, is now complete.

But what about underground cities Japans Taisei Corporation is designing a network of underground system, called Alice Cities. The designers imagine using surface space for public parks and using underground space for flats, office, shopping and so on. A solar dome(太阳能穹顶 would cover the whole city.

Supporters of underground development say that building down rather than building up is a good way to use the earths space. The surface, they say, cab be used for farms, parks, gardens, and wilderness. H.G.Wells moon people would agree. Would you?

Q: What would be the best title for the text?

A.       Alice Cities---Cities of the Future   B. Space Travel with H.G.Wells

C.  Enjoy Living Underground            D. Building Down, Not Up

分析:答案D. 文章以月求人的问题Why are you traveling to our space when?引出话题,接着讲述了人类目前对地下空间的利用现状,结尾以地下空间的开发支撑作者的观点,点题。B项与文章无关。文章主要讲述地下空加的开发利用,不是将如何享受地下生活,因此C项不对。

 

3)圆形结构:即首尾呼应的结构。 作者先提出主题、结尾时再次点名主题。通常、前后表述主题的句子不是简单的重复,后面的表述往往又进一步引申或发展的意味。

E.g. Lacrosse is a popular sport in Canada. The Indians in Canada invented it. They used it to train for war. They invented this game before Columbus arrived in the New World.

People play lacrosse outdoors. The lacrosse field is seven meters long. At each end of the field there is a goal. The goal is a net. There are ten players on each team. Each player has a stick called cross. The players hit a ball into the net as many as possible. Lacrosse is a very fast game because the players can catch and pass the ball at a high speed with their sticks. Players often get great fun in playing lacrosse.

There are many lacrosse clubs and lacrosse teams all over Canada. Every night Canadians can games over the radio. At one time lacrosse was the national summer sport in Canada. Today it is still popular with Canadians.

The passage mainly tells us about______.

A. lacrosse in Canada    B. the history of lacrosse

C. how to play lacrosse   D. lacrosse—a popular game in Canada.

分析:答案D. 作者前后两次提到“长曲棍球在加拿大很受欢迎”显然D是文章的主题

(全国卷)Shu Pulong has helped at least 1,000 people bitten by snakes. It was seeing people with snake bites that led me to this career, he said.

In 1963, after his army service, Shu entered a medical school and later became a doctor of Chinese medicine. As part of his studies he had to work in the mountains. There he often heard of people who had their arms and legs cut off after snakebite in order to save their lives. I was greatly upset by the story of an old farmer I met. It was a very hot afternoon. The old man was pulling grass in his fields when he felt a pain in his left hand. He at once realized he had been bitten by a poisonous snake. In no time he wrapped a cloth tightly around his arm to stop the poison spreading to his heart. Rushing home, he shoutedBring me the knife!Minutes later the man lost his arm forever.

The sad story touched me so much that I decided to devote myself to helping people bitten by snake, Shu said.

The best headline for this newspaper article is _______.

A. Astonishing Medicine   B. Farmer Loses Arms 

C. Dangerous Bites       D. Snake Doctor

分析: 答案D. 文章第一段就两句话。第一句点题,第二局交待了Shu Pulong 成为蛇医的原因。第二、三段举例说明Shu Pulong如何了解到农民被蛇咬的情况,第四段归纳主题, 强调是由于第一二段中的原因,促使他成为蛇医。

4)菱形结构:即主题句出现在文章中间。 通常文章前面只提出问题、主体在随之陈述的细节或合乎逻辑的引申在文中导出,而后又作进一步的解释、支撑或发展。  E.g. In spite of the fact that cars from Germany and Japan are flooding the American market, Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler are employing more workers than ever before. The flood of cheaper foreign cars has not cost American autoworkers their jobs as some experts predicted. Ford operates as far as Asia, and General Motors is considered Australiabiggest employer. Yet General Motors has its huge American work force(劳动力)and employs hundreds of people every day to     meet the needs of an insatiable society.

Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the passage?

A.  General Motors is one of the largest car producers.

B.               Ford operates not only in the USA, but also in Asia.
C.               The foreign cars have not taken away the jobs of American Autoworkers.
D.               The flood of the cheaper foreign cars is terrible for American autoworkers.
 
分析:答案C. 短文主要讲述的是:蜂拥而致的外国便宜小汽车并没有使更多的美国汽车工人下岗,主题句出现在短文中间。
5)正方形结构:即主句隐藏在全文之中,没有明确的主题句。在这种情况下,要把所有的细节综合起来,进行推理、概括归纳出主题句。

E.g. Joshua Bingham studied 4 years at the University of Paris and then transferred(转学)to the University of Berlin and graduated with honors Harvard Law School and later, Boston College provided him with an excellent legal(法律的)background. He is presently a corporation lawyer in Miami, Florida.

What is the main idea of the passage?

A.     How Joshua Bingham became a lawyer 

B.      Bingham is a diligent student

C.     Joshua Bingham received an excellent education

D.     A good lawyer needs good education

分析:答案C. 段文中主要涉及到了Joshua Bingham接受教育的情况,即作者想要告诉我们的是Joshua Bingham接受过良好的教育。所以选C.

2.标题的选择

标题的选择也是考查文章主旨大意的一种方式,是阅读理解的常考题形之一。每年都有1—3小题。常见的提问方式有

(1). The best headline for this newspaper article would be _____.

(2). Which of the following is the best title for this article?

(3). What would be the best title for this passage?

标题的选择,也是对文章主题的确认,但在很多情况下,文章并没有明确的主题句,这需要靠深具有一定的分析、综合、和概括能力。在归纳概括时,考生要分清主次,看文章主要叙述什么,从整体上把握文章的主旨从全局的角度归纳概括出文章的主旨大意。不要一叶障目、不见泰山。选择文章的标题是应做到概括性和针对性的有机结合,力求标题的醒目性。标题是文章的点睛之笔,是文章的灵魂和门面。标题一般比较醒目,甚至比较离奇,来唤起读者对文章的兴趣,因此选择标题时,要考虑标题的醒目性。力求标题简洁、突出、新颖。

On the evening of June21,2005, a tall man with brown hair and blue eyes entered the beautiful hall of the Bell Tower Hotel in Xian with his bicycle. The hotel workers received him and telephoned the manager, for they had never seen a bicycle in the hotel hall before though they lived in the Kingdom of bicycle

Robert Friedlander, an American, arrived in Xian on his bicycle trip across Asia which started last December in New Delhi, India.

When he was 11, he read the book Marco Polo and made up his mind to visit the Silk Road. Now, after 44 years, he was on the Silk Road in Xian and his early dreams were coming true. Robert Friedlanders next destinations were Lanzhou, Dunhuang, Urumqi,etc. He will complete his trip in Pakistan.

61. The best title for this newspaper article would be_______.

A. The Kingdom of Bicycle        B. A Beautiful Hotel in Xian

C. Marco Polo and the Silk Road   D. An American achieving his Aims

分析:答案D. 本文主要讲美国人Robert Friedlander实现了童年的访问“丝绸之路”的梦想。D项提箱了全文的主旨。

例如:(MET91)(稍有改动)Moscow. Russia ( Space news)--- The Computer is a better chess player, insisted Viktor Prozorov, the loser. It seemed as if it were laughing after every good move. I know I should have beaten it for the sake of mankind. But I just could not win. He announced and shook his head sadly.

   Prozorovs disappointment was shared by several grand masters who were present, some of whom were so upset that they shouted at the machine. Many chess players said that this meant the end of chess championships(锦标赛)around the world, since the fun had been taken out of the game.

   The computer walked--- or rather, rolled away with 5,000 dollars in prize money and limited its remarks(评论)a set of noises and lights.

76. Which of the following is the best title for this newspaper article?

A.     5,000 dollars goes to a computer!

B.      New invention: a laughing computer!

C.     Worlds best chess player Beaten!

D.     Computer defeats man in chess!

分析:答案D. 这是一则新闻报道,报道了电脑打败了国际象棋大师的消息。A项,电脑拿走了5000美元的奖金,只不过是文章的细节。B项新发明---会笑的电脑,与事实不符] C项,世界上最好的棋手被打败过于普通,忽略了报道中的一个很重要的要素---电脑。读者看完后可能误以为这是一般的比赛报道。

三、推理判断题

推理判断题主要考查考生根据已知的信息做出合理的推断或判断的逻辑思维能力,要求考生阅读时善于揣测、体会作者的态度、观点、意图等。作者的态度、观点、意图会渗透在文章的字里行间,有时可能比较明显,有时可能比较含蓄,隐晦,需要仔细琢磨、揣测才能得知。高考试题中涉及推理判断、意图揣测题的常用提问方式有:

What can be concluded from the passage?

We can infer / learn from the paragraph that ________.

It can be concluded from the passage that __________.

The authors purpose of writing the passage is ________.

From the passage we can draw the conclusion that ________.

The author believe that  _________.

It is most likely to be inferred from the passage that ________.

The author most probably implies in this section that ________.
推理判断题的题型及解题思路:

1.   据推理题。解答此类题,关键是要捕捉有关数字的信息,然后在透彻理解题

和原文的字面意义的基础上,对其进行分析、推算,从而得出正确的结论。

2.   逻辑结论推理。逻辑结论是指严格根据文章中所陈述的事实、论点、例证等                 一系列论据材料进行推理,从而得出符合逻辑的结论,而不是根据自己的经验、态度、观点或爱好去理解文章的内涵。解答这类题的前提是要首先获得短文的主题思想或列举的具体事实,然后按提议的要求进行推理。

3.  作者的态度、趋向推断题。作者的态度、趋向是指作者对陈述的观点是赞  同、反对还是犹豫不定,对记叙或描写的人、物或事件等是赞颂、同情、还是厌恶、憎恨。作者的这种思想趋向和感情色彩往往隐含在文章的字里行间或流露于修饰的词语之中,应特别注意文中作者的措辞。

4.  预测想象推断题。有些内容文章中并没有明确说明,要求考生根据语篇,对事件可能的结局或下段可能涉及的内容等进行预测推理。做这类题是应把握作者的写作思路(如文章可能按事件发展的经过描写,也可能按因果关系、对比关系来叙述),从而做出比较科学的、合理的预测。

Passage1   America is growing older. Fifty years ago, only 4 out of every 100 people in the United States were 65 or older. Today, 10 out of every 100 Americans are over 65. The aging of the population will affect American society in many ways----education, medicine, and business. Quietly, the graying of American has made us a very different society----one in which people have a quite different idea of what kind of behavior is suitable at various ages.
   A person
s age no longer tells you anything about his/ her social position, marriage or health. Theres no longer a particular year in which one goes to school or goes to work or gets married or starts a family. The social clock that kept us on time and told us when to go to school, get a job, or stop working isnt as strong as it used to be. It doesn
t surprise us to hear of a 29-year-old university president of a 35-year-old grandmother, or a 70-year-old man who has become a father for the first time. Public ideas are changing.
   Many people say, I am much younger than my mother or my father was at my age. No one says Act your age any more. We
ve stopped looking with surprise at older people who act in youthful ways.

1. It can be learnt from the text that the aging of the population in America        _______.
  
A has made people feel younger
  B has changed people
s social position
  C has changed people
s understanding of age
  D has slowed down the country
s social development.
 分析:这是考查主旨大意的深层理解题。文章第一段最后一句“…people have a quite different idea of what kind of behavior is suitable at various ages”点明了主题。文章后两段也是围绕着这一主题展开叙述的:人口老龄化给社会,特别是给人们对年龄问题的理解带来了变化。所以C项是正确答案。


2. The underlined word
one refers to ________.
  A a society     B America     C a place    
D population
分析:这是词义理解题。one代替的是上文中提到的一个名词,做同位语,是指different society,而不是指不同社会,所以,A项为正确答案。

3.
Act your age means people should _________.
  
A be active when they are old
  
B do the right thing at the right age
  
C show respect for their parents young or old
  
D take more physical exercise suitable to their age
分析:这也是词义理解题。“Act your age 是第一段最后一句所提到的an idea of what kind of behavior is suitable at various ages(在不同的年龄,什么样的行为是合适的),也就是B项所表示的:the right thing at the right age.此处的right就是suitable的意思。所以正确答案是B


4. If a 25-year-old man becomes general manager of a big firm, the writer of the text would most probably consider it ________.
  A normal   B wonderful  C unbelievable  D unreasonable
 分析:这是推理判断题。要求推测作者的态度。第二段最后两句话与最后一句话都反映了作者的态度。由于人们对年龄问题的看法发生了变化,25岁的年轻人成为一家大公司的经理,已不再是稀罕事。所以正确答案为
A.

Passage2  At 9:00 Dick Spivak
s bank telephoned and said his payment was late. The check is in the post, Dick replied quickly. At 11:45 Dick left for a 12:00 meeting across town. Arriving late, he explained that traffic had been bad. That evening, Dicks girlfriend wore a new dress. He hated it. It looks just great on you,
he said.
  Three lies in one day! Yet Dick Spivak is just an ordinary man. Each time, he told himself that sometimes the truth caused too many problems. Most of us tell much the same white lies, harmless untruths that help to save trouble. How often do we tell white lies? It depends in part on our age, education, and even where we live. According to one U.S. study, women are more truthful than men, and honesty increases as we get older.
  While most people use little white lies to make life easier, the majority of Americans care about honesty in both public and personal life. They say that people today are less honest than they were ten years ago. Although it is believed that things are getting worse, lying seems to be an age-old human problem. The French philosopher Vauvenarges, writing in the eighteenth century, touched on the truth when he wrote,
All men are born truthful and die liars.


  1. When the writer says Dick Spivak is just an ordinary man, he means   ________.
  
A it is common that people tell white lies
  
B Dick could do nothing about bad traffic
  
C it is common that people delay their payment
  
D Dick found it hard to deal with everyday problems

  分析:这道题属于推理判断的深层理解题。作者一方面明确指出Dick一天之内说了三次谎话,另一方面又不加掩饰地指出Dick只是个普通人而已。仅从文字表面就可以推出作者对于Dick的所谓谎话的真实态度或理解的程度,更何况作者下面对这类谎言做了相对明确的论述,这样,只能确定答案A,其他选项所表达的内容仅仅是针对个别问题的。


2. According to the text, most Americans _________.
  A hate white lies
  
B believe white lies
  
C value honesty
  
D consider others dishonest
分析:这是一道细节理解题。该题涉及美国人对诚实与说谎的看法或态度的评价问题,回答该问题的关键是认真读短文,第三段中第一句比较清楚地说明了美国人对在公共生活和个人生活方面的诚实的重视。后面又通过目前与过去对比说明了他们的态度。所以正确答案为C

 
 

3. Vauvenarges
remark suggests that ________.
  
A lying is an age-old human problem
  
B dishonesty increases as people get older
  
C people were dishonest in the eighteenth century
  
D it is social conditions that make people tell lies
 分析:这是一道推理判断的深层理解题。题目意为:“Vauvenarges’评论表明了…”。应从第三段最后一句话“ All men are born truthful and die liars.”在文章中加以分析判断,方能得出正确结论。B项具有干扰性,因为它表达这样一个含义,即“不诚实随着年龄的增长而增长”。但从整段的理解中,特别是作者引用该哲学家的结论的环境,D项是最佳。

 

在做阅读理解题的过程中,要逐步培养自己的阅读能力。阅读能力一般指阅读速度和理解能力两个方面。在快读中,不要把眼睛和注意力放在某一个词或短语上,而是按意群整体把握文章意思,把注意力放在题目所涉及的重点细节和信息上。要运用略读、扫读、跳读等技巧快速阅读,搜寻关键词、主题句,捕捉时空、顺序、情节、人物、观点,并且理清文章脉络,把握语篇实质。

                 
     四、 培养猜词能力。
  词语猜测题是高考阅读理解试题中的一种常见题型, 旨在考查考生在不使用词典的情况下,根据材料背景河上下文等线索推测词、句的确切含义的能力。这类试题包括对生词生义的猜测、熟词生义的猜测以及对it/they/ them 等代词的确指对象的判断。阅读短文过程中,有时会遇到似熟非熟的单词,这类词往往一词多义,在句子中难以辨别与理解。在平时读训练时,尽量不要去查字典,可以通过上下文、上下句、句子结构等猜出所表示的词义来。至于有些与题目无关的生词,如:表示人名、地名的词,只须知道其所表示的范围,不必翻译出来。掌握一些猜测生词词义的方法,对排除阅读中某些生词的干扰,降低生词率,提高阅读速度和理解能力是必不可少的。培养猜词的技巧可从以下几方面进行:这类试题的设问方式主要有:

(1)    What does the underlined word them/ it refer to?

(2)    In the paragraph, the word means/ refers to_____

(3)    According to the passageprobably means_______.

(4)    The author uses the wordto mean_______

(5)    The underlined word one could best be replaced by_____.

(6)    What does the author mean when he say, “…… ”?

(7)    Which of the following is the closest in meaning to the word?

关于这类试题的解题技巧,下面结合全国高考阅读试题中的实例来说明做词义猜测题的几种解题基本技巧
(一)、根据构词法来猜测生词词义:
  应熟练掌握三种常见的构词法:转换、派生和合成。高考中属于这几种类型的生词是不会注出中文意思的,所以掌握构词法能使阅读化难为易,丰富词汇,从而达到一定的阅读理解程度。如:familiar(形容词) 熟悉的, familiarity(名词) 熟悉,familiarize(动词) 使熟悉,unfamiliar (形容词)不熟悉的,unfamiliarly(副词) 不熟悉地。
  在猜测词义过程中,除了使用上面提到的一些技巧,我们还可以依靠构词方面的知识, 从生词本身猜测词义。
1
根据前缀猜测词义 例如: He fell into a ditch and lay there, semi-conscious, for a few minutes. 根据词根conscious(清醒的,有意识的),结合前缀semi(半,部分的,不完全的), 我们便可猜出semiconscious词义半清醒的,半昏迷的 I'm illiterate about such things. 词根literate意为有文化修养的,通晓的,前缀il- 表示否定,因此illiterate一窍不通,不知道的


2 根据后缀猜测词义 例如: Insecticide is applied where it is needed. 后缀cide表示杀者,杀灭剂,结合大家熟悉的词根insect(昆虫),不难猜出 insecticide意为杀虫剂 Then the vapor may change into droplets. 后缀let表示小的,词根drop滴,滴状物。将两个意思结合起来,便可推断出droplet词义小滴,微滴

3.根据复合词的各部分猜测词义 例如: Growing economic problems were highlighted by a slowdown in oil output. Highlight或许是一个生词,但是分析该词结构后,就能推测出其含义。它是由high(高的,强的)和light(光线)两部分组成,合在一起便是以强光照射,使突出的意思。 Bullfight is very popular in Spain. Bull(公牛)和fight(打,搏斗)结合在一起,指一种在西班牙颇为流行的体育运动---斗牛。


   综上所述,利用各种已知信息推测、判断词义是一项重要的阅读技巧。在实践中,我们可以灵活运用,综合运用上面提到的几种猜测技巧,排除生词的障碍,顺利理解文 章的思想内容,提高阅读速度。

 

(二)、 根据普通常识、生活常识或经验来猜测生词词义:
  如:

外部相关因素是指篇章(句子或段落)以外的其他知识。有时仅靠分析篇章内在逻辑关系无法猜出词义。这时,就需要运用生活经验和普通常识确定词义。
 
例如: HusbandIt’s really cold out tonight.

Wife: Sure it is. My hands are practically numb. How about lighting the furnace (锅炉,熔炉)?      根据生活经验,天气寒冷时,手肯定是冻僵的,冻得麻木的
         The snake slithered through the grass

根据有关蛇的生活习性的知识,我们可以推断出slither词义为爬行


 The Olympic games were to be completed in good spirit. The idea was to         participate and not to win.根据常识,可以判断 participate 有“参与”的意思。因为奥运会提倡良好的比赛精神,其宗旨是参与,而不是论输赢。

 

We are glad that we live near the ocean because we love to eat flounder.

根据句中“ocean 可猜出 flounder”是一种鱼或水产品

We like our new house because it has a few elms in the back yard that will give us shade and keep the house cooler. 根据句中的shade cooler 可以猜出elm 是一种树(榆树)。

 

Apple trees may grow as tall as twelve meters. They do best in areas that have very cold winters. Although no fruit is yielded during the winter, this cold period is good for the tree.

The word “ yielded” in the last sentence means_______.

  A. improved   B. increased   C. produced    D. sold

分析:把四个项分别取代文中的yielded,可以得出分析 improve fruit 是改进苹果(质量)的意思。尽管冬天不产苹果,却有利于苹果树的生长,自然就有利于苹果质量的改进。因此选C

(三)、利用上下文提供的同义词或同位结构来猜测生词的词义:

(1). 根据同义词的替代关系猜测词义 在句子或段落种,我们可以利用熟悉的词语,根据语言环境推断生词词义。

例如:Although he often had the opportunity, Mr.Tritt was never able    to steal money from a customer. This would have endangered his position at the bank, and he did not want to jeopardize his future.

作者为避免重复使用endangered一词,用其同义词jeopardize来代替它,由此推知其义为“使陷入危险,危及,危害”
 Doctors believe that smoking cigarettes is detrimental to your health. They also regard drinking as harmful.
 
分析:句中detrimental是个生词,但判断出harmful替代 detrimental后,不难推断出其词义为不利的,有害的 

(2).根据复述猜测词义 虽然复述不如定义那样严谨、详细,但是提供的信息足以使阅读者猜出生词词义。 复述部分可以适当词、短语或是从句。

同位语 Semantics, the study of the meaning of words, is necessary if
you are to speak and read intelligently.
此例逗号中短语意为“对词意义进行研究的学科”。该短语与前面生词

semantics是同位关系,因此我们不难猜出semantics语义学

在复述中构成同位关系的两部分之间多用逗号连接,有时也使用破折号,冒号,分 号,引号,和括号等。


 Capacitance, or the ability to store electric charge, is one of the most common characteristics of electronic circuits(线圈
).
由同位语我们很快猜出生词capacitance词义---电容量。

需要注意的是:同位语前 还常有or, similarly, that is to say, in other words, namely, or other, say i. e. 等副词或短语出现。
定语从句 Krabacber suffers from SAD, which is short for seasonal affective disorder, a syndrome characterized by severe seasonal mood swings.

(三)、根据举例猜测词义 恰当的举例能够提供猜测生词的重要线索,例如:
The consequences of epochal events such as wars and great scientific

discoveries are not confined to a small geographical area as they were in the past.
 
句中战争重大科学发现是生词的实例,通过它们我们可以猜出

epochal 大致词义“重要的”,这与其确切含义“划时代的”十分接近。

根据定义猜测词义 如果生词是句子或段落所解释的定义,理解句子或段落本身就是推断词义。
例如: Anthropology is the scientific study of man.
由定义可知,anthropology就是研究人类的科学

In slang the term "jam" constitutes a state of being in which a person finds himself or herself in a difficult situation.
 
同样,从上下文的定义可知jam一词在俚语中的意思是困境 定义句的谓语  动词多为:be, mean, deal with, be considered, to be, refer to, be called, be known as, define, represent, signify, constitute


  如:
 (样题) I did not have a roll on my plate, but I do not like bread very much anyway. (此处roll表示bread 的意思)

Influenza is sometimes called flu or a bad cold. 根据上下文可以猜出:influenzabad cold的同义词,意为:流感。

  The proprietor or owner of the store is a big man, who comes from the northern state of the country. or可以推断proprietorowner的意思相同。

  They traveled a long way, at last got to a castle, a large building in old times.

 后面的同位关系很容易看出castle指什么。

  We are on the night shift---- from midnight to 8am.--- this week.

  两个破折号之间的词语很清楚的表明了night shift 是“值夜班”的意思

 


(四)、 根据上下文提供的反义词来猜测词义:
  如:Most dentistsoffice are drab places, but Emilions new office is a bright and dreadful place.根据上下文可以猜出,drabcheerful bright的反义词,意为:死气沉沉的,阴暗的。

If you agree, write Yes, if you dissent, write No

此举前后对比分明,前面表示肯定,后面表示否定,由此可推断dissent agree 意思相反。意思是“不赞成、不同意”

(五)、 根据对比关系猜测词义 在一个句子或段落中,有对两个事物或现象进行对比性的描述,我们可以根据生词或 难词的反义词猜测其词义。例如:

    Andrew is one of the most supercilious men I know. His brother, in contrast, is quite humble and modest. 
该例中supercilious对许多人来说可能是个生词,但是句中短语in contrast,(相对照的,相对比的)可以提示我们supercilious和后面词组humble and modest(谦卑又谦虚)是对比关系。分析出这种关系后,我们便能猜出supercilious意为目空一切 的,傲慢的

表示对比关系的词汇和短语主要是unlikenotbuthoweverdespitein spite ofin contrast while 引导的并列句等。

 

例如:  A good supervisor can recognize instantly the adept workers from the unskilled ones.
 
该句中并未出现上面提到的表示对比关系的词或短语,但是通过上下文可以判断出句 子前后是对比关系,即把熟练工人与非熟练工人区分开。这时我们也能够推断出生词 adept的词义,熟练的


(六)、 根据比较关系猜测词义 同对比关系相反,比较关系表示意义上的相似关系。

例如: Green loves to talkand his brothers are similarly loquacious.
该句中副词similarly表明短语loves to talk与生词loquacious之间的比较关系。以 此可以推断出loquacious词义为健谈的。表示比较关系的词和短语主要是similarlylikejust asalso等。


(七)、 根据因果关系猜测词义 在句子或段落种,若两个事物、现象之间构成因果关系,我们可以根据这种逻辑关系 推知生词词义。
例如Tom is considered an autocratic administrator because he makes decisions without seeking the opinions of others.
 
根据原因状语从句的内容,我们可以推断出生词autocratic独断专行的

  There were so many demonstrators in the Red Square that he had to elbow his way through the crowd.
此句为结果状语从句,根据从句的描书许多示威者,我们便可推知elbow的词意 “挤,挤过”。

(八)、 根据语法结构、标点符号等猜测生词的词义:

  如:
  ①The scientists who study insects are called entomologists. 根据定语从句提供的线索可以猜出entomologists意为:昆虫学家。

 ②Suddenly they became the parents of quintuplets, four girls and a boy.根据逗号后的解释可以猜出quintuplets意为:五胞胎。

(九)、 根据上下文具体的语境猜测生词的含义:
  如:
a).The influence of TV on the life of the people is incalculable: it can influence their thoughts and their way of life. It can also add to theirstoreof knowledge. Educational TV stations offer teaching in various subjects.Some hospitals use TV for medical students to get close-

up views of operations. 通过这段话的描述,我们知道电视对人们的生活影响很大,所以我们猜测incalculable的意思为“大的,不可计算的”。

  b). She cannot play tennis because she cannot find her white sneakers.  因果关系,为什么不能打网球?主要是找不到自己的网球鞋。

  c). The flowers in the vase withered because they had no water. 因果关系,

花没有浇水就会枯萎,因此可以推断出wither 的意思是“枯萎”。

  d). The lack of movement caused the muscles to weaken. Sometimes the weaken was permanent so the player could never play the sport again.

因果关系,从后面的“永远不能在运动 ”可以推测permanent 的意思是“永远的、永久的”

e).Mr.Jackson asked the bank for a small loan so that he could open a shop

分析法根据asked the bank open a shop 可以推测出loan 的意思是“贷款

  f). He takes a special interest in botany, which concerns the study of plants.

  根据定语从句which concerns the study of plant 的解释可知 botany 意思是“植物学

g) Shu Pulong has helped at least 1,000 people bitten by snakes. It was seeing people with snake bites that led me to this career, he said.

 Which of the following words can take the place of the word career in the first paragraph?

 A. conclusion    B. story      C. incident       D. job

    h) Should the government regulate the cost of resources such as oil and gas? Some people do not believe government control is the solution to the problem of rising cost of fuel. 结合前后两句可以知道regulatecontrol指的是同一概念。所以regulate意思是“控制”

  

五、

掌握科学的阅读理解题的解题方法:
  首先,迅速阅读理解的问题。
  通过阅读问题,可以大致推断文章的大意,从而为尽快了解文章的内容做好了准备,增强了在将来读文章时的针对性,突出了重点,提高了做题效率。这种方法特别适用于图形表格类题材的理解。读问题时,最好能判断哪些问题与文章存在直接关系即可在文章中直接找出答案,哪些需要推理,哪些需要做结论等。这一步骤的目的主要就是要让自己知道应该找什么。
其次,快速阅读全文。
   
带着问题,尽量快速地阅读完整个文章,如果遇到了与某问题相关的材料,就用铅笔划出来,并写上题号,然后继续往下阅读。阅读中如果遇到了不懂的句子,不要停下来去深思熟虑。这一步骤的目的是对文章的内容结构有一个总体的了解,知道一些重点词、事实或有关材料在文中的位置。
第三,重读问题。
  重新阅读问题,理解问题,并与文中相关的材料相对照。此时,每次要阅读一个问题,并弄懂问题。如果读了问题后,能在原文中找到相关的材料,就要重读一次相关材料,并可依此作出选择。这一步骤的目的就是将较容易的问题选择完,以便能更集中精力解决较难的问题。
第四,重新阅读全文。
  这是第二次也是最后一次阅读全文,应带着问题(尤其是还未解决的问题)一字不漏地读完全文。这次阅读与第二步骤的阅读不同,因为此时已对文章有了总体的理解,所以这遍阅读将会注意到文章中的一些细微之处,将有助于解答难题。
 
最后,再次阅读尚未解决的问题。对于仍未解决的问题,此时应再次认真理解并依照

文章的更透彻的理解,做出最终的选择。
第三讲
阅读理解试题训练:

Trips are open to YFU students living in the Western District

         and their host siblings.

ALASKA

May 15-25,2006

CANCELLED DUE TO

LACK IN INTEREST

l       Kenai Fjords National Park

l       Kenai Wildlife National

Wildlife Refuge

l       Glaciers

l       Matanuska Valley

l       Sled Dogs

Los Angeles Trip

May 27- June1

$599 + air

l       Venice Beach

l       Beverly Hills

l       Disneyland

l       University Studios

l       Santa Monica

              

East Coast Trip

Apr.22-28

$699 + air

l       Washington DC

l       Smithsonian Museum

l       Empire State Building

l       Statue of Liberty

l       Broadway Show

l       Ground Zero &Wall Street

 

Hawaii Trip

Feb 22-Mar.1

$799 + air

l       Beaches  * Swimming

l       Volcano hike

l       Sun, sand & surf

l       Soccer

l       Pearl Harbor

l       Hawaiian Lunau

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.       Suppose you were a YFU student who likes to see snow, you would ______.

A.     take part in the Hawaii Trip

B.      join in the Los Angeles Trip

C.     attend the ALASKA trip

D.     have nowhere to go.   (D)

 

分析:答案D,本篇文章属广告类文体,对于考生来说,阅读不算困难。单体的设置非常巧妙。考生很容易在做题时出错。学生一看去ALASKA旅行,而且,此广告中有Sled Dogs,很容易就错选C项。根本没注意到文中提到的CANCELLED DUE TO LACK IN INTEREST

Ashley Susi has turned a hobby into a good deed. The 11-year-old, who is in the fifth grade at Copley- Fairlawn Middle School, learned how to knit (编织) from her mother a year ago. Ashley saw her mother doing it and kept asking her mother to show her how. She did and soon realized the good that could come from her new pastime (消遣)……..

56. Why did Ashley Susi learn to knit at the beginning? 

A.     To give scarves to the homeless.

B.      To earn money for her family.

C.     To learn something new just as a hobby.

D.     To do a good deed.

分析:答案D项。 此题设问非常巧妙。由文章第一段可知“ Ashley Susi把他的爱好变为一件好事”,因此,已开始学习织围巾是自己的爱好而已。

 

Ashley Susi has turned a hobby into a good deed. The 11-year-old, who is in the fifth grade at Copley- Fairlawn Middle School, learned how to knit (编织) from her mother a year ago. Ashley saw her mother doing it and kept asking her mother to show her how. She did and soon realized the good that could come from her new pastime (消遣)……..

56. Why did Ashley Susi learn to knit at the beginning? 

E.      To give scarves to the homeless.

F.      To earn money for her family.

G.     To learn something new just as a hobby.

H.     To do a good deed.

分析:答案D项。 此题设问非常巧妙。由文章第一段可知“ Ashley Susi把他的爱好变为一件好事”,因此,已开始学习织围巾是自己的爱好而已。

 

ARE YOU READY FOR YOUR MBA?

 Work. Family. Meetings. When will you find the time to earn the MBA you’ve

Always dreamed of? Our schedule works around you. The Dallas MBA is the # 1 choice of working professionals. You can earn your MBA on your schedule. You’ll get the flexibility and convenience you need…

Upcoming Fall 2006 Information Sessions

l       Saturday, November18, 2006

Irving Campus Gorman Bldg.

1845 East Northgate Drive

*…………………………………

 

 

60. Which of the following is the most attractive factor to the people who want to attend MBA courses?   

A.     People can get accelerated intensive courses.

B.      Many experienced teachers will teach.

C.     Courses can be given at different time at people’s convenience.

D.     People can find better jobs after attending the course.

分析:答案C项。 此题设问非常巧妙。本则广告一开始就提到 Work. Family. Meetings. When will you find the time to earn the MBA you’ve always dreamed of? 可知,谁染有很多人梦寐以求地想参加MBA课程,但苦于没有时间。 接着又提供了这所大学的课程安排可以就学习者的方便“Our schedule works around you…You can earn your MBA on your schedule… 故选C项。

61. If you live in East Northgate Drive, the best way to know more information about the Dallas MBA courses is ____________.

A.     to attend information session held on Nov.18

B.      to pay a visit to Plano Campus on Nov.7

C.     to visit the web.

D.     To make a phone call

分析:答案C项。 此题属于推理判断题,设问同样巧妙。因为住的地方与该课程要在1118日所举行的信息会是在同一地点,所以去哪儿很方便。故选A项。

 62. What’s the purpose of the ad? (D)

A.     To introduce a university.     

B.      To describe a product.

C.     To introduce a training course 

D.     To attract readers to the MBA courses.

   分析:答案C项。作者的写作意图推断题。本篇广告通过对MBA课程及时间安排的描述,目的是让人们前去报名参加The Dallas MBA课程,故选D项。

B

TV is an excellent resource for hearing and listening to English. The pictures help you understand what is being said and TV news is an ideal way to help improve your listening ability because within a short period of time the same news is often repeated. This means that you can watch basically the same news programme several times within a day and that every succeeding programme will help you to understand what is being said.

These preparatory steps are very important before your listening:

*Find out which news report you want to listen to, when and on what channel. CCTV 9 is a good choice because this is China’s English channel and has regular news reports.

*Just watch the news reports for a few days first, before requiring yourself

to understand the stories. Give yourself time to get familiar with the newsreaders and their accents. You should also get an idea of the structure of the entire report as well as the structure of a typical news story.

* Watch the news in Chinese first. This will tell you what the main news items are and helps prepare you for understanding news reports in English.

While listening, you should pay attention to a few things that you may try to do:

*You can aim at just getting what a story is about. Give a one-to-two- sentence description after each story.

*Put forward a few questions to yourself about a story, and then seek to answer them from your listening. You can do this by stopping the tape as soon as the headline is read to you.

*You may write a full transcript(抄本)of a story to practise intensive listening. This may bring to notice listening problems that have skipped your attention when you only concentrate on the content.

Even though the listening part is over, some follow-up activities will help you reinforce (加强)your learning. You may talk about the news with one or more friends. This provides an opportunity to produce a summary or express your thoughts in a brief article.

45. The underlined word “succeeding” most probably means__________.

 A. funny          B. next        C. good                  D. famous

46. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage?

   A. getting ready for news listening

   B. making suggestions while listening.

   C. giving reference after listening.

   D. listening practice after the proposal.

47. Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the passage?

    A. The pictures on TV are helpful to your written English and spoken English.

B. CCTV 9 is a good choice because there are all excellent foreign newsreaders.

C. You may get a general idea about a story by using one or two sentences.

D. You may use the whole transcript of a story to practise your writing ability.

48.The best title for this passage may probably be _________.

  A. How to Listen to TV News      B. How to Improve Your Listening

C. How to Get From Listening     D. How to Listen Step by Step

45. B。词语猜测题。由上文的关键信息句within a short period of time the same news is often repeated.以及关键信息词several times,可判断succeeding的意思为“以后的,随后的”与next意思较吻合。

46. D。细节理解题。由文章的第二段的These preparatory steps are very important before your listening:及三点判断选项A已提到;由While listening, you should pay attention to a few things that you may try to do:及三点可判断B项已提到;由文章最后一段可判断选项C已提到,而D项文中并未涉及。

47.C。推理判断题。A项错在与文章第一段第二句不符;B项错在与CCTV 9 is a good choice because this is China’s English channel and has regular news reports.不符;C项正确是因为与You can aim at just getting what a story is about. Give a one-to-two- sentence description after each story. 吻合;D项错在与You may write a full transcript(抄本)of a story to practise intensive listening.不符。

48.A。主旨大意题。从全文的大意及开头结尾,讲到的就是关于TV news的听力训练,故正确选项为A

C

Internet shopping is a new way of shopping. Nowadays, you can shop for just about anything from your armchair. All you need is a computer which is linked to the Internet. Shopping on the Internet is becoming increasing popular. In the United States, people spent over US $ 2.5 billion on Internet shopping in 1998. This figure is expected to reach US $ 21 billion by the year 2008.

People can shop for a variety of products on the Internet. Physical products include items such as books, CDS, clothes and food. These types of products are the most common purchases through the Internet. You can also buy information products such as on-line news or magazine stories, or you can download(下载)computer software through the Internet. Services such as booking airline tickets, reserving hotels or renting cars are also available on the Internet. You can also go shopping on the Internet for entertainment services and take part in on-line games.

Internet shopping offers a number of benefits for the shopper. The most important advantage is convenience. You can shop whenever you like as the on-line shops are open 24 hours a day and you don’t have to queue with other shoppers at the check-out counters. Secondly, it is easy to find what you are looking for on the Internet. Even out-of-print books may be ordered on line. Finally, it is often cheaper to buy goods through the Internet, and you can tell the shop exactly what you want.

The main disadvantage of Internet shopping is that you cannot actually see the products you are buying or check their quality. Also, many people enjoy shopping in the city and miss the opportunity to talk to friends. Some people are worried about paying for goods using credit cards, so Internet companies are now finding ways to make on-line payment safe.

Internet shopping is sure to become more and more popular in the years ahead. It promises to change the way we buy all kinds of things—–from tonight’s dinner to a new car.

49.On-line news and magazine stories are _________.

A. not yet available on the Internet

B. free to download through the Internet

C. the most popular products on the Internet

D. information products available on the Internet

50. The best thing about Internet shopping is _________.

A. the reasonable price       

B. the quality of the goods

C. the speed the goods are delivered at

D. the convenience it brings to people

51.The disadvantages of Internet shopping include all of the following EXCEPT that________.

A. customs cannot actually see the products they are buying

B. customs cannot check the product’s quantity they are buying

C. many people enjoying shopping in the city miss the opportunity to talk to friends

D. some people are worried about paying for goods using credit cards

52.The most proper title for this passage is ____________.

  A. People Enjoy Many Ways of Shopping   

B. The Bright Future of Internet Shopping

C. A New Way of Shopping—Internet Shopping

D. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet Shopping

53.What is the author’s attitude toward the future of Internet shopping?

   A. Negative        B. Optimistic         C. Concerned        D. Critical

49.D。事实细节题。A项文章中没有提及;目前网上已提供在线新闻和杂志,排除B;这些新闻和杂志是需要花钱购买的(buy),并不能免费下载,排除C

50.D。事实细节题。根据第三段第一、二句话Internet shopping offers a number of benefits for the shopper. The most important advantage is convenience.即可知道最大的优势是便利。而选项AB虽然也是网上购物的好处,但不是最重要的;选项C不是网上购物的好处之一,而是网上购物的一个缺陷,即不能检查商品的质量。

51.B事实细节题。第四段提到了网上购物的主要缺陷,包括:不能看到实物并检查质量,排除选项A;不能享受购物乐趣,排除C;使用信用卡的不安全性,排除D;选项B的意思:购物不能检查所购商品的数量。而文中提到的是不能检查商品的质量,所以不正确。

52.C。主旨大意题。文章中作者围绕网络购物,阐述了网上购物的种类及其优缺点,并对其未来进行展望。所以正确答案应该是C。选项BD都只是文章的一个方面;选项A过于宽泛。

53.B。观点态度题。根据文章最后一段可以看出,作者对网上购物的未来持乐观态度(Optimistic)。Negative消极的,Concerned关心的,Critical批评的,都与文章内容不符。

 

 

 

 

 

 

高三培优英语阅读

                           (A)

Touch is important in all people’s lives! It is a basic need --- we need to be touched, to be stroked, and have physical contact with other people to survive. A child who does not get touched in loving way often enough has difficulty in developing. And as we grow up we continue to need to touch and to be touched. The way in which someone touches others or us can tell us a lot about this person. Touching properly is both good manners and the fulfillment of a human need.

Touch and intimacy are very much connected. Intimacy is expressed by touching often, and powerfully using such signals as physical closeness, eyes contact, smiling, and the content of conversation. These signals give us information about the level of intimacy we have with other people.

When a change happens in one of these signals, especially in touch and physical closeness, we will change the other signals according to the level of intimacy we feel we have with that person. For example, when the personal physical space between two people is too small, they will try to avoid eye contact.

The same happens when there is too much touch or when the conversation gets too personal. If one doesn’t want intimacy and yet is forced to be close to others, for example, by standing against them in a full bus, one will avoid eye contact, stare at the ceiling or outside, keep a neutral expression on one’s face and avoid conversation.

68. The text mainly asserts that touch is the basis for __________.

   A. intimacy     B. health     C. survival       D. conversation

69. If a child doesn’t get touched in a loving way often enough, what will happen to him?

A.     He will only live in his own world. 

B.      He will not have good manners.

C.     It will be difficult for him to deal with difficulties

D.     It won’t be easy for him to get intimate with others.

70. From the text, we can infer that ______________.

A.     actually touch has nothing to do with intimacy

B.      touch can tell us something about the person doing the touch.

C.     If two men stand close together they will have eye contact.

D.     Intimacy can be expressed by the slightest touch.

71. What would be the best title for the text?

   A. We Need More Touch       B. Touch, Not Intimacy

   C. The Power of Touch        D. Stroke Your Child Often

(Keys to68---71 ADBC)]

 

(B)

English is the official language of and is widely used in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia… English is the language most often studied as a foreign language in the European Union, followed by French, German, and Spanish. It is also the most studied in China, Japan and South Korea. Books, magazines, and newspapers are written in English in many countries around the world. English is also the most widely used language in science. In 1997, the Science Citation Index reported that 95% of its articles were written in English, even though only half of them came from authors in English-speaking countries.

1.       What is the main idea of the second paragraph?

A.     English is the official language of many countries.

B.      English is the most widely used language in science.

C.     English is studied as a foreign language in many countries

D.     English is widely used around the world.   D

(C)

Seven tips to good table manners

# Whether it’s dinner at a friend’s house or a business meeting over lunch, we judge people based on their table manners. But what can you do if your kids do not behave themselves at the dinner tables? The following are seven tips to set your children on the road to good table manners:

# Look for the good. Instead of pointing out all the things your children do wrong, point out what they do right. Please say, for example, “ I am so proud of you. It was wonderful the way you served yourself.”

# Don’t turn dinner into an unpleasant “ lecture time”. That will turn kids off not only manners, but dinner, and you, too. ……

 63. The underlined word “ turn kids off” in the second tip probably mean “ _________.

. Make kids pleased with       B. make kids interested in

C. make kids tired of             D. make kids fond of   (C)

D

Gloria Brown of Fort Wayne was reunited recently with two brothers and one of her two sisters. She hadn’t seen them since she was 3 years old.

“ I was crying and nervous,” said Brown, 45, who has been living in Illinois…

Brown, now a mother of four children, spent time in four different homes, but she never lost her strong wish to be reunited with her biological family. She asked national talk shows for help, as well as the doctor who delivered her. A search online connected her with a woman who had known her in childhood. With the help of her, she found her two brothers and one of her sisters, but didn’t find her mother and eldest sister, Josephine.

Finding my family member is always my dream,” Brown said. “ When you are missing a piece of you and you find it, it’s a great thing.”

65. What can be inferred from the passage?

A.     Josephine still lived together with her mother.

B.      The family will continue to search for their mother and sister.

C.     Brown’s mother is still where they lived together.

D.     The brothers and sisters will move to live together.   (B)

                  E

Lynne Truss argues that common courtesy() such as saying “ Excuse me” is practically gone. There are certainly many people who would agree with her. Consider that in one recent survey, 70 percent of U.S. adults said people are ruder now than they were 20 years ago.

Is it really true? Reader’s Digest decided to find out if courtesy truly is kaput. RD sent reporters to major cities in 35 countries where the magazine is published ---from Auckland, New Zealand, to Zagreb, Croatia and New York.

The routine in New York was similar to the one followed elsewhere. Two reporters ---one woman and one man---spread out across the city, going straight towards neighborhoods in busy streets. They did three experiments. “ door tests” (would anyone hold one open for them?), “ document drops” ( who would help them gather a pile of “accidentally” dropped papers?”), and “ servive tests” ( which salesclerks would thank them for a purchase?). The New York tests were conducted at Starbucks coffee shops.

Along the way, the reporters met all types: men and women of different races, ages, professions and income levels. They met an actress, a high school student, a hedge-fund analyst and two New York City police officers. And guess what? In the end, four out of every five people they met passed RD’s courtesy test---making New York the most courteous city in the world. While 90 percent of New Yorkers passed the door test, only 55 percent passed the document drop test. Nineteen of the 20 clerks to service tests passed. 

56. What does the underlined word “ kaput” in the Paragraph2 mean? (D)

   A. Proper     B. Reasonable     C. Broken    D. Gone

57. The tests mentioned in the text were done by _______?

   A. asking and answering written questions  B. visiting famous people and students.

   C. watching people in the streets.         D. acting out some scenes in the everyday life.(D)

58. A person would pass the tests if he _________.

   A. let others close the door behind him     B. drooped a pile of papers accidentally

   C. helped others gather the dropped papers  D. said” thanks” after buying others’ goods(C)

59. How did the author feel about the result of the experiments?

   A. Satisfied.     B Worried.      C. Anxious.      D. Confused.

F

In his late forties, my father bought six grave plots here, certainly he would die in Chicago, which he did. Most people in my parents’ generation tended to buy burial plots earlier in life. Today, I guess most people don’t bother, assuming that they will die somewhere more charming than where they are at the moment. My father planned on dying in Chicago, a city he knew and loved. I feel the same, and have no desire to lie alongside other places.

My parents are buried in Carnation named after flowers. To get to it I have to drive through as long as perhaps three city blocks. I usually arrive at the cemetery (墓地)near noon. Sometimes a funeral will be in progress nearby; sometimes a new grave is being dug. Often, in the middle distance, Mexican women are planting flowers on graves. I rarely see fellow mourners( 哀悼者)but then I don’t really think of myself as a mourner as I stand over the graves of my parents, both of whom had long and good lives.

I don’t mean starting conversations with my dead parents. I go to the cemetery mainly to refresh my memory of them, recalling how good they were to me. They gave me freedom, and left me on my own. The only thing they kept me tied to was reality--- they laughed a lot. I appear at their graveside to express my thankfulness to them for these gifts.

72. What is the tone of the passage?

   A. Sorrowful      B. Happy    C. Calm     D. Worried 

73. What can we know about the author’s father?

A.     He was very rich when he was alive. B. He led a long and happy life.

C. He didn’t die in Chicago finally.     D. He was always afraid of death.

74. The author goes to the cemetery where his parents were buried to ___B_____.

A.     see what have happened to his parents’ grave. 

B.      recall his good memories of his parents.

C.     Deliver some food and gifts to his parents.

D.     Plant some flowers on the grave.

75. From the passage, we can infer that the author ___C____.

   A. now is in his forties              B. is thinking about buying his grave plot

   C. loves Chicago as his father does    D. didn’t like to talk to his parents

 

The London Stock Exchange has always been famous as a place for men only, and women used to be strictly forbidden to enter. But the world is changing day by day, and even the Stock Exchange, which seemed to be a man’s castle, is gradually opening its doors to the other sex. On 16th November 1971, a great decision was taken. The Stock Exchange Council (the body of men that administers the Stock Exchange) decided that women should be allowed on to the new trading floor when it opened in 1973. But the “ castle” had not been completely conquered. The first girls to work in “ The House” were not brothers or jobbers. They were neither allowed to become partners in stockbroking firms, nor to be authorized dealers in stocks and shares. They were simply junior clerks and telephone operators.

Women have been trying to get into the Stock Exchange for many years. Several votes have been taken in “ The House” to see whether the members would be willing to allow women to become members, but the answer has always been “No”. There have been three refusals of this kind since 1967. Now women are admitted, although in a very junior capacity. Two firms of jobbers made an application to the Stock Exchange Council to be allowed to employ girl clerks. Permission was finally given. A member of the Stock Exchange explained, after this news had been given, “ The new floor is going to be different from the old one. All the jobbers will have their own stands, with space for a telephone and typewriters. Therefore there will have to be typists and telephone operators. So women must be allowed in.” This decision did not mean a very great victory in the war for equal rights for women. However, it was a step in the right direction. The Chairman of the Stock Exchange said: “ I think that the opening of the new building will eventually lead to women being allowed to have full membership of the Stock Exchange. It is only a matter of time; it must happen.”

1.       It was not until 16th November 1971 that ___C_____.

A.     The London Stock Exchange opened its doors to women

B.      Women began to work in the London Stock Exchange for the first time

C.     The Council decided to allow women to the new trading floor when it opened in 1973

D.     The “ castle” was completely conquered

2.       The first girls __A___.

A.     were allowed to enter “ The House” in a very junior capacity

B.      served as brothers or jobbers in “ The House”

C.     were allowed to become partners in stockbroking firms

D.     were authorized as dealers in stocks and shares

3.       Who had the power to decide whether or not to employ girl clerks? (A)

A. The Stock Exchange Council.    B. Any member of the Council.

C. The firms of jobbers.           D. The chairman of brokers.

4.       According to the context, “ It is only a matter of time” implies___B__.

A.     Women would very soon have full membership of the Stock Exchange

B.      Women would eventually have equal rights with men in the stock Exchange

C.     more and more women would be willing to work in the Stock Exchange

D.     a new building would eventually be built for women.

5.       What is this passage about?(D)

A.     Women’s place in society

B.      How the London Stock Exchange functioned in 1971

C.     How women have been struggling for full membership of the Stock Exchange.

D.     How women were gradually allowed to work in the Stock Exchange.

2.

  English is now the international language for airline pilots, scientists, medical experts, businessmen and many others. Consequently, more and more people are learning it. The BBC’s English teaching radio programmes are broadcast daily to four continents and supplied to radio stations in 120 countries. Films and video are on the air or used in institutions in over 100 counties. All this helps to add more speakers to the estimated 100 million who use English as a second language. The rush to learn English has reached even China. The main reason for the upsurge in interest is the recent increase in China’s contacts with the outside world.

  Unlike many other widely used languages, English can be correctly used in very simple form with less than one thousand basic words and very few grammatical rules. This was pointed out in the 1920’s by two Cambridge Scholars, Ogden and Richards, who devised a system called “ Basic English”. Another reason for the popularity of English is that English-speaking countries are spread throughout the world. An estimated 310 million people in Britain. U.A.S., Canada, Australia, South Africa, etc. use English as their mother tongue. Also in former Britain colonial areas in Africa and Asia where many local languages are spoken, no common language has been found which would make a suitable substitute for English.

  In Delhi, although nationalists would prefer to phase out of the use of English, the man from South India finds English more acceptable than Hindi, while the northerner prefers English to any of the southern languages. Turning from India to Africa, a similar problem exists. However reluctant African nations are to use English and, as it were, subject themselves to a kind of “cultural imperialism”, there seems to be no alternative language that will do the job of communication effectively.

  The view that spreading the use of English is entirely beneficial has its opponents. Some teachers who have returned from overseas consider it creates a wider gap between those who are educated and those who have little or no education. Nevertheless, in many parts of the world, the technical and scientific knowledge needed to develop a country’s resources and improve people’s living conditions, is just not available in the mother tongue. A second language opens the door to the worldwide sharing of skills and discoveries in science, engineering and medicine.

  As for the future, it seems certain that English in one form or another will be spoken by far more people than it is today. It will doubtless continue to change and develop as a living language always does.

1. Why do many 3rd World people oppose the use English in their countries?(A)

A.     They consider it a form of cultural imperialism.

B.      The English language has produced racism

C.     Other languages are easier to learn.

D.     They oppose modernization in general.

2. The growing interest in English among the Chinese people is due to___A____.

A.     China’s opening up to the outside world

B.      their intelligence and industry

C.     the skill of foreign teachers

D.     all of the above.

3. The linguistic conditions of Africa and India as presented in this passage _C__.

  A. bear no relation to one another   B. reflect basic cultural differences

  C. are basically the same           D. are fundamentally opposite

4. The spreading use of English is __C_____.

  A. entirely beneficial                          B. largely accidental

  C. of debatable value to developing nations      D. both A and C

5. Possible dangers from the spreading of English to developing countries include all of the following except ____A____.

  A. industrial sabotage   B. deepening class divisions

  C. cultural imperialism  D. diverting attention from the plight of the impoverished masses

6.       Developing countries value English primarily as __B_____.

A. a form of entertainment   B. a means of acquiring scientific knowledge

C. a surveillance device      D. a source of cultural unity

7.       The author’s view of the spread of English is ___A____

A. positive   B. negative    C. neutral    D. repressed

3

  For one Japanese man and his wife, attending the World Cup match between Japan and Russia on Sunday is likely to be a bittersweet experience. Kazusada and Man Sumiyama will be in the stands in memory of their son Yoichi, a fervent (狂热的) soccer fan who died in the September 11 attacks in the United States.

   Yoichi, 34, was so excited last year by the prospect of the World Cup that he called his parents in February from New York, where he worked for Fuji Bank in the World Trade Center, asking them to apply for tickets, the Yomiuri Shimbun newspaper said. When his parents visited Yoichi in July, his father Kazusada ---also a soccer devotee(热衷者)---told him he had picked up two tickets and they would make it a father-son event. “ I will manage to get vacation somehow,” and overjoyed Yoichi reportedly said. “ I will be there no matter what.” But fate intervened in September, when Yoichi was one of 2,823 people killed after two hijacked planes slammed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center and destroyed them. Although Yoichi had left his office high in the South Tower after the first plane struck the other tower and evacuated(撤离)to the ground floor, he went back up following an announcement that it was safe and was there when the second plane hit.

  In February this year, following long days of grieving when they were unable to eat or meet people, Kazusada suggested to Mari that she attend the World Cup match their son had looked forward to so much, the Yomiuri said. To do so, however, meant officially changing the name on the ticket. This in turn meant having Yoichi declared dead--- a step that Japanese are often reluctant to take in cases where a body has not been recovered. Early in April, on virtually the same day that they received the new ticket issued in Mari’s name, came word that Yoichi’s remains had been found.

  “ I am going to the match because I know it will please my son,” Mari was quoted by the Yomiuri as saying. Kazuasda in turn said: “ Most likely, our son is now moving around, free of the limits of time and space.” “ I am sure that, somewhere, he two will be watching the match.”

1.       The Japanese couple went to see the match between Japan and Russia __D__.

A.     because they are both football fans

B.      because they went to feel the atmosphere of the stadium

C.     just for fun

D.     to memorize their son

2.       All of the following is true about Yoichi EXCEPT that ___C____.

A.     he is a fervent soccer fan

B.      he was crazy for the coming World Cup held in his own country before his death.

C.     He died in the 9.11 attack just because he wanted to help others.

D.     He was supposed to see the match himself

3.       We can infer from the 3rd paragraph that ___C____.

A.     the couple still thought that their son would come back one day before their decision to see the match

B.      the old couple didn’t believe that their son had been dead because the body had not been recovered

C.     the old couple accepted the reality when they decided to attend to the World Cup match

D.     the old couple were convinced in April that their son had been dead.

4.       What’s the main idea of this passage? (A)

A.     An old couple went to see a World Cup match in memory of their son.

B.      A crazy football fan named Yoichi who died in the September11 attack.

C.     The September11 attack caused so many sufferings to many families.

D.     A moving story of an old couple and their son.

4.

Editor’s note: AWL is well-known for its dictionaries and English

language teaching materials. Some readers have written in to ask us for the latest information on high quality books on English speaking, so here we introduce two texts that aim to improve spoken English fluency.

Let’s Speak (Beginner)

By Bev Kusuya, Naoko Ozeki and Kevin Bergman

ISBN: 962001359X

Speak Up (Pre-Intermediate)

By Bev Kusuya, Nako Zeki

ISBN: 0582228050

“ Teach the students about your culture and help them talk about their own.” How often are these worthy goals kept from being achieved by the limitation of your beginner-level learners? Students at all levels want to talk about culture.

  Topics include food, shopping, sports, fashion, the roles of men and women, health, music, and many more.

  These are all chosen from surveys of over 15,000 students about their own interests in cross-cultural communication.

  “ Let’s speak” and “ Speak up” share a special but excellent way that allows all students to take part.

  The series has questions which start thinking and then help collect opinions about personal topics. Conversation practice is provided by ready-to-use models of basic exchanges on the topic. Also, the cultural information presented in the series in the form of interesting, relevant(相关的)facts and ideas from other countries through listening tasks and Culture Quiz Exercises. Team activities in books provide lively problem-solving games to enable sharing and comparison of cultural values.

  “ Let’s speak” is fit for entry-level students of all ages. “ Speak up” provides for the needs of higher-level beginners, offering the same careful listening and speaking help, but with slightly more open-ended discussion. For any information about AWL’s books, please get in touch with the following address:

Beijing Addison Wesley Longman Information Center:

Room 2306, FLTRP Beijing

19 Xi San Huan Beilu, Beijing 100081

Tel: (010) 68917488    (010) 68917788    ext 2306

Fax: (010) 68917499

Email: zrh@ public. Bat. Net. Cn

1. Which of the following are mentioned about the two books in the passage?B

  a. publisher b. titles c. content d. writers  e. prices  f. pages g. book numbers

  A. a, b, d, f    B. a, c, d, g   C. b, c, d, e     D. b, c, e, f

2. The two books have in common everything except ____B____.

A.     the same interesting topic   

B.      the same level of learners

C.     proper ways to excite the learners to talk

D.     right kinds of activities for cultural communication

3. According to the passage, you can have at least __C__way to be connected if you want to know something about AWL’s books.

A. two      B. three   C. four    D. six

4.       The passage above is probably taken from the section __D__in a newspaper.

A. EDUCATION   B. NEWS   C. ADVERTISEMENT  D. BOOKSHELF

5

I can’t count how many times people have complained, while shaking their

heads in obvious disappointment, “ Just don’t know what is with teenagers today.”

The other day I was in my car on my way to the farmers market when I passes two teens standing by the side of the road with a car wash sign, my car was filthy and my heart was full, so I pulled over. There was a group directing the cars and another group spraying them down. As sponges(海绵)were wiped over every square inch of my dirty car, I sat enjoying the little water battles. I was amazed at how fourteen to fifteen teenagers had devoted their Saturday to washing cars.

  After I handed them a twenty-dollar bill I asked what they were raising

money for. They explained to me that a friend of theirs, C.T. Schmitz, had recently died of cancer. He was only fifteen years old. He had gone to school with a lot of the teenagers who were there that day; each of them had memories of a boy sweeter than any they had known. His friend Kevin had decided to put this car wash together because he wanted to honor his friend and also bring together his classmates with his Boy Scout troop(童子军). He told me that they wanted to plant a tree in front of their school and if they raise enough money they would put a plaque (匾)there also. Both would be in memory of their friend C.T.

  They handed me a bag of homemade cookies with my receipt saying “ Thanks for helping us plant a tree of C.T.”

   Yeah! I don’t know what is with teenagers today!

1. The boys were raising money because they intended to __C__.

A.     buy a plaque for their school  

B.      help those who suffered from cancer

C.     plant a tree in memory of their friend

D.     put a plaque near his friend’s home

2.               From the passage, we can infer that C.T. Schmiz was ___D____.

A. kind-hearted but lonely    B. brave and popular with his classmates

C. shy and sensitive          D. a boy you can get a good impression of

3.               What does the underlined word “ filthy” in Paragraph 2 probably mean? B

A. New   B. Dirty     C. Good-looking    D. Ordinary

4.               What would be the best title of the article?  A

A. Teenagers today                B. A special day

C. My view on teenagers           D. An exciting experience

6.

In every Britain town, large and small, you will find shops that sell second-hand goods. Sometimes such shops deal mostly in furniture, sometimes in books, sometimes in ornaments(装饰)and household goods, sometimes even in clothes.

The furniture may often be “ antique”, and it may also be very valuable,

although the most valuable piece will usually go to the London salerooms, where one piece might well be sold for hundreds of thousands of pounds. As you look around these shops and see the polished wood of chests and tables, oyu cannot help thinking of those long-dead hands which polished that wood, of those now-closed eyes which looked at these pieces with love.

The books, too, may be antique and very precious; some may be rare first

printings. Often when someone dies or has to move house, his books may all be sold, so that sometimes you may find whole libraries in one shop. On the border between English and Wales, there is a town, which has become a huge bookshop as well. Even the cinema and castle have been taken over, and now books have replaced sheep as the town’s main trade,

   There are also much more humble shops, sometimes simply called “ junk

shop” where you can buy small household pieces very cheaply. Sometimes the profits from these shops go to charity. Even these pieces, though, can make you feel sad; you think of those people who once treasured them, but who have moved to another country or to death.

  Although the British do not worship(崇拜) their ancestors, they do

treasure the past and the things of the past. This is true of houses as well. These days no one knocks them down; they are rebuilt until they are often better than new. In Britain, people do not buy something just because it is new. Old things are treasured for their proven worth; new things have to prove themselves before they are accepted.

1.       What is the small town on the border between England and Wales famous for? (B)

A. Its sheep    B. Its bookshops   C. Its cinema    D. Its castle

2.       Second-hand goods sometimes fill you with sadness because __B___.

A.     they are too expensive for average buyers

B.      they remind you of the original owners

C.     they are now forgotten

D.     they are sold for charity

3.       The average British person ___D____.

A.     does not respect old things because they are not fashionable

B.      likes to build new houses simply because it is fashionable to do so

C.     likes to buy new things because they are fashionable

D.     does not like to buy things simply because they are fashionable

4.       What does the underlined word “ them”(in Paragraph4) refer to? (C )

A. Junk shops   B. Profits from shops  C. Old things   D. Old houses.

                           7 Half-Truths

Be aware of (当心) those who use the truth to deceive. When someone tells

you something that is true, but leaves out important information that should be included, he can create a false impression.

For example, someone might say, “ I just won a hundred dollars on the lottery. It was great. I took that dollar ticket back to the store and turned it in for hundred dollars!”

This guy’s a winner, right? Maybe, maybe not. We then discover that bought two hundred tickets, and only one was a winner. He’s really a big loser!

He didn’t say anything that was false, but he left out important information on purpose. That’s called a half-truth. Half-truths are not technically lies, but they are just as dishonest.

Untrust worthy candidates(候选人)in political campaigns often use this method, let’s say that during Governor Smith’s last term, her state lost one million jobs and gained three million jobs. Then she seeks another term. One of her opponents runs an ad saying, “ During Governor Smith’s term, the state lost one million jobs!” That’s true. However an honest statement would have been, “ During Governor Smith’s term, the state had a net gain of two million jobs!”

Advertisers will sometimes use half-truths. It’s against the law to make false claims so they try to mislead you with the truth. An ad might boast, “ Nine out of ten doctors recommend Yucky Pills to cure nose pimples.” It fails to mention that they only asked ten doctors and nine of them work for the Yucky Corporation.

This kind of deception happens too often. It’s a sad fact of life: Lies are lies, and sometimes the truth can lie as well.

1.       Which statement is true according to the article?  C

A.     You can’t trust doctors. 

B.      All governors help their states.

C.     The truth can be used in dishonest ways.

D.     Whenever people tell the truth, they are really lying.

2.       The underlined word “ deceive” (in paragraph1) means __B____.

A. prove what they know is untrue  B. cause someone to accept as true

C. force you to believe something   D. pay no attention to

3.       The author clearly wants people to ___C____.

A.                 never trust anyone

B.                  vote for female candidates

C.                 think carefully about what they read and hear

D.                 wear mismatched socks during political campaigns

4.another possible title for this section would be __D____.

A. Nose Pimples             B. Everyone Lies  

C. Natural Cat Food         D. Lying with the Truth

                          8

   Millions of people die of hunger in southern Africa every year, but when Zambia was offered thousands of tons of free maize by the USA, the government politely said no.

   “ We don’t know whether the food is safe”, said Zambia’s Commerce, Trade and Industry Minister Dipak Patel.

   His worries are shared by countries around the world that doubt about America genetically modified ( GM, 转基因的) crops, Just last week, EU member nations were discussing whether or not to import GM sweet corn from the US.

Ever since people started farming, they have tried to crossbreed(杂交)plant to make them stronger or better tasting. At one time, only related plants could be crossed with each other.

But when GM techniques were developed in the 1970s, scientists were able to put a single gene from a living creature into an unrelated creature.

This means they can make crops more productive and resistant to disease by adding genes from other species. They can also create food with special characteristics, such as “ golden rice”, which is enriched with vitamin A. But many people believe GM foods are a health risk.

At the moment, the official argument is that GM foods “ are not likely to present risks for human health”. But there are still many questions to be answered as the foods are produced in different ways.

Some experts believe the genetic material added to plant can transfer to humans and damage our bodies. Further harm could be caused by the genes from GM plants crossbreeding with naturally produced crops.

People in China are also getting worried about GM foods. More than 70 per cent of the country’s soybean oil is produced from imported GM soybeans. Meanwhile, an investigation last November found that 12 out of 60 famous food brands (品牌) sold across the country were GM products. The government has begun to introduce a labeling system for GM foods so that consumers can choose whether or not they eat them.

1.       Why has Zambia refused the American free maize? B

A.     They are too proud to accept free offer.

B.      They worry about the safety of GM food.

C.     Their problem of starvation is not serious.

D.     They decide to follow EU members’ advice.

2.       It has been proved that _____D_____.

A.     GM food are harmful to people’s health

B.      GM foods are better than naturally produced foods

C.     only related plants could be crossed with each other

D.     GM techniques can increase the production of crops

3.       Which is the best title for the passage? C

A. GM Foods in China        B. Advantages of GM Foods

C.     GM Foods, A Health Risk?  D. The Development of GM Techniques

                      9

When Mara jumped down there was a thickness of mud under her feet, but hardness under that. The moonlight was so strong it made big shadows from the rocks, and from the branches that were stuck in the mud, and sad shadows from the drowned animals lying about everywhere. The grasses dragged at their feet, but they went on, and then they reached the edge of the river.

  The other side seemed a long way off. The man picked up one of the torn-off branches, held the leafy part and carefully stepped to the very edge of the water. He poked the branch in and it went right down. He went squelching along the edge and tried again, and it went down. He did it farther along and this time the wood only went in to about the height of the children’s knees.

  “ Here,” he said, and the woman lifted Mara up. The two big people stepped into the brown water, which was racing past, rippling and noisy, but not deep, not here. The man went ahead of Dann, poking the wood of the branch into the water at every step, and the woman, with Mara, was just behind. Mara thought, “Suppose the food comes down now? We’ll be drowned.” And she was trembling with fear.

  They were right in the middle now, and everything glistened and shone because of the moon, which was making a gold edge on every ripple. The mud on the other side of the water was a stretch of yellowish light. They were going so slowly, a step and then a stop, while the man poked the water, and then another step and a stop. It seemed to go on and on, and then they were out of the water and on the mud. Close by were some trees. They had had water quite high up their trunks, though usually they were on the edge of a waterhole. They seemed quite fresh and green. There were dark blotches on the branches----birds. They must have been sitting here safely all through the flood.

1.       The man used the branch to ____B_____.

A. pull things out of the water     

B. test how deep the water was

C. see how quickly the water was flowing

D. help him balance as he walked through the mud

2.       When the man said “ Here” he wanted ___D____.

A. the woman to pass Mara to him  B. to explain what had just happened

C. to set up camp for the night     D. to cross the river at that point

3.       The water marks high up on the trunks of the trees showed that the __B__.

A. trees were on the edge of a waterhole

B. flood water had been much higher than it was now

C. tree branches had been ripped off by the flood

D. river had changed its course after the flood water subsided(退水)

4.       The best word to describe how Mara was feeling as she crossed the river is A_

A. frightened     B. excited     C. curious    D. astonished

5.       Which of the following statements is not true? (C)

A. The man led the way very cautiously.

B. The story took place on one moon.

C. The underlined word “They” refers to the man and his fellows.

D. The flood had caused many animals’ death.

10

  Everyone chase success, but not all of us want to be famous.

  South African writer John Maxwell Coetzee is well known for keeping himself to himself. When the 63-year-old was named the 2003 Nobel Prize winner for literature earlier this month, reporters were warned that they would find him “ particularly difficult to catch”

  Coetzee lives in Australia but spends part of the year teaching at the University of Chicago. He seemed shocked by the news that he won the US $1.3 million prize. “ I wasn’t even aware they were due to make the announcement,” he said.

His love of privacy led to doubts as to whether Coetzee will attend the prize-giving in Stockholm, Sweden, on December10.

But despite being described as difficult to track down, the critics agree that his writing is easy to get to know.

Born in Cape Town, South African, to an English-speaking family, Coetzee made his breakthrough in 1980 with the novel “ Waiting for the Barbarians”. He took his place among the world’s leading writers with two Booker prize victories, Britain’s highest honor for novels. He first won in 1983 for the “ Life and Times of Michael K”, and his second title came in 1999 for “ Disgrace.”

A major theme in his work is South Africa’s former apartheid system, which divided whites from blacks. Dealing with the problems of violence, crime and racial division that still exist in the country, his books have enabled ordinary people to understand apartheid from within.

“ I have always been more interested in the past than the future,” he said in a rare interview. “ The past casts its shadow over the present. I hope I have made one or two people think twice about whether they want to forget the past completely.”

In fact this purity in his writing seems to be mirrored in his personal life. Coetzee is a vegetarian, a cyclist rather than a motorist and doesn’t drink alcohol.

But what he has contributed to literature, culture and the people of South Africa is far greater than the things he has given up. “ In looking at weakness and failure in life,” the Nobel prize judging panel said, “ Coetzee’s work expresses the divine spark in man.”

1.       Coetzee was ____B___ when news came that he won the 2003 Nobel Prize for literature.

A. excited     B. surprised    C. frightened     D. satisfied

2. People wonder if he will come to the prize-giving on December10,2003 because

  A. he is particularly difficult to find    ( D)

  B. he lives in Australia not in South Africa.

  C. he is busy teaching at the University of Chicago

  D. he likes to be left in peace without being bothered.

3. When reading his works, people may find ___C___.

  A. he became famous for the novel “ Waiting for Barbarians”

  B. he won British highest honour for novels

  C. racial discrimination exists in South Africa

  D. he wanted to forget the past completely

4. John Maxwell Coetzee is a person who ____A___.

  A. prefers riding a bike to a motor      B. likes eating meat very much

  C. ever drinks wine                   D. often accepts interviews

11

  Among all the malignancies, lung cancer is the biggest killer: more than 100,000 Americans a year die of the disease. Giving up smoking is one of obvious ways to reduce the risk, but another answer may lie in the kitchen. According to a new report, even heavy smokers may be protected from developing lung cancer by a simple dietary measure: a daily portion of carrots, spinach or any other vegetable or fruit containing a form of vitamin A called carotene.

   The finding, published in the British medical journal The Lancet, is part of a long-range investigation of diet and disease. Since 1957 a team of American researchers has monitored the dietary habits and medical histories of 2,000 middle-aged men employed by the Western Electric Co. in Chicago. Led by Dr. Richard Shekelle of Chicago’s Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke’s Medical Center, the researchers recently began to sort out the links between the subjects’ dietary patterns and cancer. Other studies of animals and humans have suggested that vitamin A offers some protection against lung cancer. The correlation seemed logical, explains Shekelle, since vitamin A is essential for the growth of the epithelial(上皮的)tissue that lines the airways of the lungs.

   Vegetables: But the earlier research did not distinguish between two different forms of the vitamin. “ Preformed” vitamin A, known as retinal, is found mainly in liver and dairy products like milk, cheese, butter and eggs. But vitamin A is also made in the body from carotene, which is abundant in a variety of vegetables and fruits, including carrots, spinach, squash, tomatoes, sweet potatoes and apples.

   In the Western Electric study, Shekelle and his colleagues found little correlation between the incidence of lung cancer and the consumption of foods containing preformed vitamin A. But when they examined the data on carotene intake, they discovered a significant relationship. Among the 488 men who had the lowest level of carotene consumption, there were fourteen cases of lung cancer; in a group of the same size that ate the most carotene, only two cases developed. The apparent protective effect of carotene held up even for longtime smokers---but to a lesser degree.

   Further studies will be necessary before the link between lung cancer and carotene can be firmly established. In the meantime, researchers warn against taking large numbers of vitamin A pills, because the tablets contain a form of the chemical that can be extremely toxic in high doses. Instead, they advise a well-balanced diet that includes foods rich in carotene. For a smoker, a half-cup of carrots every day might possibly make the difference between life and death.

1. What does “ malignancy” in the first paragraph above the text refer to?

   A. Cancer      B. Sickness     C. Vitamins     D. Disease   ( A)

2.       Dr. Richard Shekelle _____D_____.

A. is leading the nutrition study   B. works in a Chicago medical canter

C. has been studying the links between food and cancer  D. all of the above.

3.       Why did Dr. Shekelle think the correlation between vitamin A and lung cancer protection was logical? ( C )

A. Vitamin A cause lung cancer      B. Vitamin A curse lung cancer

C. Vitamin A is necessary for the growth of the tissue lining the lungs.

D. Vitamin A is a molecule that prevents smoke from being inhaled.

4.       Carotene is present in all of the following except ___D______.

A. tomatoes    B. carrots    C. squash     D. butter

5.       Among the groups studied, who had the most cases of lung cancer? ( A )

A. Those with the lowest level of carotene intake.

B. Those with the highest level of carotene intake.

C. Those who ate only foods containing carotene.

D. Those with the lowest intake carrots.

6.       Why do researchers warn against taking large numbers of vitamin A pills?

A. The pills are hard to swallow

B. The pills contain a chemical that can be toxic in high doses.  ( B )

C. The pills are expensive.

D. The pills cause lung cancer.

12

  Work, for most American and Chinese women aged 55 and under, involves responsibility for a household, a child or children, and a job outside the home as well. It all adds up to a busy life. How is it going for them—for us?

  Demographers have observed that life forms a different sort of pyramid for women in China than in the United States. In China, nearly all young mothers are employed outside the home, with their numbers tapering off as women approach old age. The reasons are clear: the second income of the woman is an absolute necessity for a young family with a child or two. Later on, when the children are grown, the older couple can more easily live on the husband’s earnings plus the wife’s pension, and fewer middle-aged women continue in employment.

  The pyramid for American women is the opposite, with fewer young women employed, and the number increasing at older ages. Many young mothers have found it more efficient to stay home and care for the children themselves, then find employment later when the children are older and more independent. But rising costs of living are requiring more young American women to help support the family. They enjoy the adult relationships with others at work and feel stimulated by the demands and challenges of being employed. Staying at home with only a child or two, as even American family size is now, can be monotonous and lonely. Furthermore, a woman’s paycheck can provide her with stronger voting power in family matters.

  But the American working mother often feels troubled by the complexity of her life. Childcare is unreliable and expensive. Childcare workers have low status, are not well educated and are poorly paid--- they are often women unable to get better jobs. Thus the American working mother always has the worry that her child is not being as well cared for as she hopes, and the cost of babysitters or private-enterprise daycare centers can eat up half or more of her salary. Other worries distract her from good performance at her job: What if the babysitter gets sick? What will her employer think if she has to stay home with a sick child? What if the car, necessary to get the child to the daycare center and herself to and from her job, breaks down? Few people live close enough to their work or childcare center to accomplish this on foot or by bicycle, as in China.

1.       Which of the following statements is right according to the first paragraph?

A. This passage involves women of all age

B. For most Chinese and American women, life is a combination of a household and a job outside the home.

C. The writer is representative of men.  C

D. Children are the cause of women’s busy life.

2.       What does the phrase “ taper off” in the second paragraph mean? A

A. Gradually decrease.            B. Remain the same.

C. Slightly change.                D. Increase slowly.

3.       Which of the four answers is not the reason for an American young woman to work outside? D

A. The cost of living is increasing.

B. More earning contributes to more power in a family.

C. Staying at home with child is boring.

D.                       Baby care is unreliable and expensive.

4. What can we learn from the comparisons mentioned above? C

   A. Americans would be shocked to have to work at jobs that kept husband and wife separated for months.

   B. Chinese men seem to be performing more in family work than the American man would.

   C. American women have more varied and complex concern while Chinese women are freer of the competition for status.

   D. American women are more concerned with the past.

5. What may come right after the last paragraph of this passage? A

   A. In China, grand parents take care of children.

   B. On the job, Chinese women seem more confident.

   C. Certainly it is true that in both countries males are given preference in education, job selection and promotion.

   D. Our nation could not run without them.

                               13.

   Traditionally, universities have carried out two main activities: research and teaching. Many experts would argue that both these activities play a critical role in serving the community. The fundamental question, however is: how does the community want or need to be served?

   In recent years universities have been coming under increasing pressure from both the governments and the public to ensure that they do not remain “ ivory tower”(象牙塔) of study separated from the realities of everyday life. University teachers have been encouraged, and in some cases constrained, to provide more courses which produce graduates with the technical skills required for the commercial use. If Aristotle wanted to work in a university in the UK today, he would have a good chance of teaching computer science but would not be so readily employable as a philosopher.

   A post-industrial society requires large numbers of computer programmers, engineers, managers and technicians to maintain and develop its economic growth but “ man”, as the Bible says, “ does not live by bread alone.” Apart from requiring medical and social services, which do not directly contribute to economic growth, the society should also value and enjoy literature, music and the arts. In these cost-conscious times, it has even been pointed out in justification for the funding of the arts that they can be useful money earners. A successful musical play, for instance, can contribute as much to the Gross National Product through tourist dollars as any other things.

1.       The main idea of the first paragraph is that ____B_____.

A. traditional universities do a good job serving the society

B. universities must meet the needs of the society

C. research and teaching are of great importance in universities

D. universities play an important role in our society

2.       We can infer from the second paragraph that  ___A____.

A. the society is not satisfied with the present college education

B. the governments interfere too much with college education

C. teachers are forced to do what they don’t like to do

D. teachers dislike teaching commercially useful courses

3.       The Aristotle example is used to make the point that  ___B_______.

A. universities in the UK have produced too many good-for-nothing graduates

B. such abstract subjects as philosophy is no longer useful

C. education should serve the social needs

D. it is advisable for today’s philosopher to know computer science

4.       According to the passage, literature, music and the arts ___C_____.

A. do not contribute to economic growth at all

B. are less useful to the society because they do not make direct contribution to economic growth

C. are similar to medical and social services in their way of promoting economic growth

D. should develop only when they are good for economic growth

5.       The author believes that ____D_____.

A. art is useful only when it is made into a money earner

B. the promotion of economic growth is the only goal of today’s society

C. universities should not provide literature or art courses

D. the society needs both technical skills and arts

14

If US software companies don’t pay more attention to quality, they could kiss their business good-bye. Both India and Brazil are developing a world-class software industry. Their weapon is quality and one of their jobs is to attract the top US quality specialists whose voices are not listened to in their country.

  Already, of the world’s 12 software houses that have earned the highest rating in the world, seven are in India. That’s largely because they have used new methodologies rejected by American software specialists. For example, for decades, quality specialists, W. Edwards Deming and J.M. Juran had urged US software companies to change their attitudes to quality. But their qulity call main fell on deaf ears in the US--- but not in India. By the 1970s and 1980s, India was grabbing market share with better, cheaper products. They used Deming’s and Juran’s ideas to bring down the cost of good quality to as little as 5% of total production costs. In US factories, the cost of the quality then was 10 times as high: 50%. In software, it still is.

  Watts S. Humphrey spent 27 years at IBM heading up software production and then quality assurance. But his advice was seldom paid attention to. He retired from IBM in 1986. In 1987, he worked out a system for assessing and improving software quality. It has proved its value time and again. For example, in 1990 the cost of quality at Raytheon electronics systems was almost 60% of total software production costs. It fells to 15% in 1996 and has since further dropped to below 10%.

  Like Deming and Juran, Humphrey seems to be winning more praises overseas than at home. The Indian government and several companies have just founded the Watts Humphrey Software Quality Institute at the Software Technology Park In Chennai, India. Let’s hope that the US lead in software will not be eaten up by its quality problems.

1.       What country has more highest-rating companies in the world than any other country has?D

A. Germany      B. The US     C. Brazil      D. India

2.       By what means did India grab its market share by the 1970sand the 1980s?

A. Its products were cheaper in price and better in quality. A

B. Its advertising was most successful

C. The US hardware industry was lagging behind.

D. India hires a lot of Indian software specialists.

3.       What does the founding of the Watts Humphrey Software Quality Institute symbolize? B

A. The US determination to move ahead with its software.

B. The Indian ambition to take the lead in software.

C. The Japanese efforts to solve the software quality problem.

D. The Chinese policy on importing softare.

4.       What is the writer worrying about?

A. Many US software specialists are working for India.

B. The quality problem has become a world problem.

C. The US will no longer be the first software player in the world. C-

D. India and Japanese are joining hands to compete with the US.

15.

Many young people are excited by their first weeks on a new job. For others, this early period is disappointing. Some difficulties may be caused by the individual’s lack of information and preparation. Often, unpleasant surprises result from the unreal expectations aroused during the recruiting process(招聘过程). Recruiters and interviewers overstate the attractiveness of a job to gain a large number of candidates. Applicants(应聘人员)overstate their abilities and understate their needs to improve their chances of getting the job; At the same time, they may fail to study the company to which they are applying. Thus, each side offers a mixed bag of truths---all likely to cause problems when those hired begin to work.

   The problem of over expectation can exist for anyone, but it may be especially severe for those young graduates who have done particularly well in their studies and (or) have graduated from famous business schools. They have been used to fast, regular feedback(反馈)on their performance and to the atmosphere of the university. They expect to find the same conditions on their new job. But once on the job, they think that their skills and abilities unused.

   An individual whose expectations are inconsistent(不一致) with the realities of a new job is not likely to develop an effective and satisfying work role in the company. Edgar Schein found that almost 75 percent of the interviewed graduates changed jobs at least once over a five-year period. He also found that within five years most companies lose over half of the college graduates they hire.

Schein thinks that this is caused by the difference between the graduates’ expectations and the realities of the company. Similarly, in his study of a small group of American business school graduates working in South America, Schein found that job continuation and satisfaction were related to how closely the graduates’ original expectations matched the realities of their jobs.

1.       That some young people are disappointed during their first weeks on a new job may be caused by ___C___.

A. their over excitement          B. new working conditions

C. the individual’s lack of information and preparation

D. their lack of abilities

2.       College graduates overstate their abilities because they want to ____D__.

A. get a higher payment       B. attract more companies

C. obtain a large number of candidates  D. get the job

3.       According to the passage, ____B____.

A. one man is not likely to develop an effective and satisfying work role in the company

B. more than 75 percent interviewed graduates changed jobs over a five-year period

C. over half of the college graduates lost their jobs within five years

D. an individual’s expectations are inconsistent

4.       After reading the passage, you may conclude that ___D_____.

A. young people like to change their jobs

B. young people’s skills and abilities are not needed in companies

C. companies like to hire old people

D. young people are more likely to change their jobs

 

16.

The 2008 Beijing Olympics will not accept donations from individuals,

Vice-Mayor of Beijing Liu Jingmin announced on Sunday.

Many Chinese people wanted to contribute money to the Beijing 2008 Olympics Bid Committee both when Beijing was bidding for the Olympics and after it won the right to host them.

“ We sincerely thank the people for their warm-hearted support,” said Liu.

“ Though the organizing committee for the 29th Olympics has been set up, but we hope the public will spend their money on improving their own lives and on taking more physical exercise,” said Liu.

Liu said that this is the best form of support people can offer.

“ Backed by Beijing’s prosperous economy, we are capable of making the Olympics in the Chinese capital the most remarkable Games in history,” Liu vowed.

In the first half of the year, Beijing’s gross domestic product reached 123.4 billion yuan (US$15billion), up 11 percent over the same period last year.

Local financial income has seen an annual increase of 20 percent over the past five years.

1.       Which of the following statements is true?   (C)

A.     The 2008 Olympics will be held in Paris.

B.      They hope people will donate money to the Olympics.

C.     They hope people will spend their money in improving their lives and heath.

D.     The 2008 Olympics will be supported only by the government.

2.       Financial income of Beijing increased by ___B___ last year.

A. 30%        B. 20%      C. 40%         D. 100%

3.       We can infer from the news story that ____D_____.

A.     Beijing has got a lot of money

B.      Beijing will build a lot of new buildings

C.     Beijing will become more beautiful

D.     Beijing’s economy has developed greatly in the past few years

STONEHENGE is the most outstanding prehistoric monument in the British

Isles and is a World Heritage Site.

  Imagine that you are walking among the ancient people who mapped the course of the sun and moon to build this monument.

  Look for the burial mounds in the landscape where they buried their leaders.

  Stonehenge is the center of one of the world’s earliest cultures. Take time to explore Stonehenge and the surrounding area--- there is much to see.

  Complimentary Audio Tour (subject to availability) help you learn more about Stonehenge, its history and surroundings. Our Guide Book, which is available at the entrance and shop, contains photographs, text and illustrations that bring the history of Stonehenge alive.

  Some 7---8,000 years ago the area was mixed pine and hazel woodland before becoming downland. This landscape can be seen on the murals as you proceed through the tunnel on your way to the monument. We know this from evidence from several Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) pits discovered in the late 1960s at the far end of the car park. These are now indicated by white discs on the tarmac.

   The larger stones you see in the circle are Sarsen stones, brought from the Marlborough Downs 19 miles (30km) away and the smaller stones, known as the Bluestones, are from the mystical Preseli Mountains in Wales, 240 miles (385km) away.

   Today you see the remains of a prehistoric monument that was in use thousands of years ago. It was constructed in three main phases:

 

3050BC (5,050 years ago)

Circular ditch and bank (a henge)

 

Circa 2600BC (4,600 years ago)

Wooden structure constructed at center.

 

2500---1500BC (4,500---3,500 years ago)

Stone monument constructed, arranged and re-arranged over almost 1,000 years.

 

More Information: Our Visitor Operations Team is available at the monument to provide additional information and help. Please do not hesitate to approach one of the team for further assistance.

   Soumana is a Nigerian student who came to study Chinese in Beijing three years ago. In September 2005, he began a three year post-grad in interpretation and translation at the Beijing Language and Culture University.

Asked why he chose China, Soumana said the country had always been mysterious and attractive to him, and that its recent economic rapid increase brought about a global trend for learning the Chinese language.

Says Soumana, “I like the Beijing lifestyle very much. Its citizens are very hospitable and generous. And the city itself has a strong cultural atmosphere. It has retained many interesting traces of ancient Chinese civilization. On the other hand, as an international famous capital city, it attracts people from around the globe. As China’s economy continues to grow, more and more foreigners are coming here to work, study and travel. It’s great to have the opportunity to live in such a fascinating city and make friends from all over the world.”

Soumana is a big admirer of his Chinese tutor, Associate Professor Liu Heping. “I am very lucky to have such an excellent tutor,” Soumana said. “She has a good command of French. She studied in Paris for many years and understands perfectly the education systems and teaching methods of both countries. I progressed quickly with my study under her careful and well-arranged guidance.”

Most of Soumana’s classmates are Chinese, and many of them have become his close friends. The translation course requires near fluency in both Chinese and French – two very complicated languages. When the teacher leaves their assignments, Soumana and his Chinese classmates complete them carefully before exchanging them to check for errors. In class, they have hot debates over the best expressions for the translated pieces. “My objective is to quickly improve my language skills and participate more in exchanges between China and Niger,” Soumana says. He thinks the partnership between China and Africa is mutually beneficial, and hopes to see communications and exchanges blossom through the Forum on China—Africa Cooperation.

56. All the followings are the reasons why Soumana came to China except ____.

 A. he was curious about China, which was attractive to him

 B. China’s economy taking off brings about a global trend for learning the Chinese language

 C. he prefers the Beijing lifestyle, citizens and hospitals as well

 D. he can pay a visit to many ancient sites with Chinese civilization

57. The underlined word “retained” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to ____.

 A. kept…alive   B. remembered   C. restored     D. copied…from

58. From the passage we can infer that ____.

 A. Soumana was born in France

 B. Soumana studied in Paris for many years and understands the education systems and teaching methods of both Niger and France

 C. Soumana’s mother tongue might be French D. after his graduation, he will work as ambassador for China—Africa Cooperation

59. Soumana’s future goal is that ____.

 A. he is eager to improve his language fluency and help promote exchange between his country and China

 B. he wants to see communications and exchanges both in China and France

 C. he will be either an interpreter or a translator working in the Beijing Language and Culture University

 D. he will have a good command of French and Chinese

B

Applying to Oxford. We hope that the information contained in this prospectus will enable you to make an informed decision about applying to study at Oxford University. To help you get the most out of this publication, here are a few key points you should bear in mind:

Choosing a course. The first step is to identify the course you wish to study. A full list of the courses available can be found in the Entrance requirements table. You will notice that some courses have specific entry requirements and it is important that you check carefully that you are taking the appropriate A-levels (or equivalent) in preparation for your chosen course.

Choosing a college. Once you have decided which course to study, you have the option of choosing a college of preference, or submitting an Open application. For general information about the college system and guidance on how to choose a particular college, you are advised to read the general information about colleges on this website.

______________?  All candidates must submit an Oxford Application Form and a UCAS form by 15 October. Depending on your chosen degree subject, you may have to submit some written work by 10 November and/or take a short test if you are invited to come to interview in December. To find out more about the application procedure, see the Application forms section.

What happens next?  Interviews. Many students worry about the prospect of interviews, but there is no reason to be apprehensive. Interviews should be regarded as a subject-specific discussion with a person who could be your future college tutor, who wants to explore your understanding of and commitment to your chosen degree subject. Tutors will want to see you do your best and will want you to be yourself and have confidence in your abilities. Interviewers are not trying to make you feel ignorant or to catch you out.

Written tests. In some subjects you are required to sit a written test, either prior to your interview or while you are in Oxford for interview. Samples of written tests for most of those subjects are available on request from the Oxford Colleges Admissions Office. You can also find sample tests on the web at www.admissions.ox.ac.uk/interviews/tests/

I haven't got A-levels - can I apply? Generally, you need to have, or expect to obtain, qualifications equivalent to three full A-levels. However, students from all over the world apply to Oxford and from a wide variety of educational backgrounds, and colleges are experienced in assisting applicants with a range of qualifications.

60.   If you want to apply to Oxford, What would you do at first?  C

A. Attending an interview   B. Taking a written test   C. Identifying the course      D. Choosing colleges

61.   What is the best title of Paragraph 4? A

A. How to Apply                         B. How to Take Tests

C. How to Write Application Form        D. How to Send Written Work

62.   According to the passage, the underlined sentence “ But there is no reason to be apprehensive.” Refers to ___A____.

A.     You don’t need to be worried about the interview

B.         It is hard to understand

C.     There is no need to be interviewed

D.     It is necessary to be interviewed.

63.   All of the following sentences are true EXCEPT ____B___.

A.     All candidates have to offer an Oxford Application Form and a UCAS form by October15

B.      Only three-A-level students can apply to Oxford

C.     You are sure to be yourself and confident in your abilities in the interview

D.     You can find more application information in Application Forms Section

64.   In paragraph 5, what is the meaning of the underlined phrase “ catch out”?

A.     To reach somebody who is ahead.     D

B.      To help somebody out.

C.     To make somebody understand.

D.     To know little or nothing, or lack education

C

TOKYO--- A child-like robot that combines the roles of nurse, companion and security guard is to go on the market to help the growing ranks of elderly Japanese with no one to look after them.

The “ Wakamaru” robot can walk around a house 24 hours a day, warning family, hospitals and security firms if it notices a problem. It will, for example, call relatives if the owner fails to get out of the bath.

Cameras implanted in the “ eye-brows” of the robot enable it to “ see” as it walks around an apartment. The images can be sent to the latest cell phones, which display the pictures.

Wakamaru will inform a security firm if there is a loud bang or if an unknown person enters the house while the owner is out or asleep. It can recognize up to 10 faces.

But like most robots it can’t climb stairs.

Mitsubishi Heavy Industry, which developed Wakamaru, adapted Wakamaru from robots it already makes to go around nuclear power facilities. The idea to use the technology in the home came from a company employee.

The technology has gained nation-wide publicity in Japan among increasing concern over how to look after the ever-growing number of old people. The life expectancy of Japanese women has shot up to almost 85, the highest in the world.

At the same time, extended families are being replaced by nuclear families. This has left many Japanese anxious about their elderly parents, whom they rarely see because of their long hours at office.

65.   Which of the following is true about the Robot? D

A.     It is used in some nuclear power facilities.

B.      It cannot speak but can understand answers.

C.     It can go up and down the stairs easily.

D.     It can recognize as many as 10 faces.

66.   The purpose of this passage is ___A____.

A.     to introduce a new product

B.      to solve the aging problem

C.     to tell people how to use robot

D.     to show the rapid development of technology

67.   What can we infer from the passage? B

A.     The robot can dial proper numbers for help.

B.      The robot is likely to have a promising market.

C.     The robot has given the Japanese a chance to live longer.

D.     The nuclear families have left many elderly Japanese anxious.

68.   What is the best title of the passage? D

A.     The Latest Development of Technology

B.      Japanese Robot and the Aging Society

C.     Vast market of the New Robot

D.     Japanese-built Robot to help the Old

                                    D

A crowd of teenagers groups together on a sidewalk. But they’re not talking to each other. Their heads are bent down, and their thumbs are busy pushing tiny buttons on their cell phones.

This scene provides a glimpse—one of dozens we see each day—of Asia’s “thumb culture.” Young cell-phone users are extremely adept at typing text messages using only their thumbs. These rapidly typed messages help them keep constantly in touch with one another. Increasingly, this constant messaging is replacing more traditional forms of communication.

Many young people think hand-written greeting cards are old-fashioned. Instead, they send a holiday greeting or birthday wish by text message. They can reach as many people as they want with a single text message. They pass on jokes and good news through digital greetings.

Text-messaging is so popular that people actually hold speed-typing competitions. In 2004, a woman from Singapore typed a 25-word text message in less than 44 seconds. Of course, this woman isn’t the only person with supper-fast text-massaging skills. Many young cell-phone users can dash off whole messages in under a minute. But all this rapid and constant thumb-typing has led to at least one unexpected consequence.

It’s created a new health problem, known as “text-messaging injury.” Cell-phone users sometimes have pain in their thumbs. This injury is caused by the thumb making the same small movements hundreds of times a day.

“Because the movements are small, they do not cause the blood to circulate,” said Andrew Chadwick, an expert from the U.K. “That means the fingers are acting like an engine without oil.”

Doing finger stretches before and after text-messaging can reduce the health risk. Experts also recommend text-messaging no more than an hour and a half a day. The key is to keep messages short. Fortunately, cell-phone users have developed their own special abbreviations. That makes typing easier, and just might help prevent sore thumbs, too. CU L8ER!

Here are some common English abbreviations used in test messageCU L8ER----See you later

2NITE  ----Tonight

4EVER ----Forever

B4    ----before

DIY   ---- Do it yourself

HAND ----Have a nice day

K     ----OK

NBD  ----No big deal

OIC   ----Oh, I see

ZZZ   ----Sleeping, bored

 

69. Which of the following best summarizes the passage?

 A. What are the advantages and disadvantages of cell-phones?

 B. How are cell phones affecting youth communication?  B

 C. Who use cell-phones most of the time?

 D. Why is the cell-phone so popular?

70. The underlined word “adept” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to _B___.

 A. adapt    B. expert     C. suffer     D. disappoint

71. What’s the matter with cell-phone users’ thumbs?  D

 A. They developed some skills by text-messaging sometimes.

 B. The fingers are used hundreds of times a day without oil.

 C. Some special abbreviations make typing easier and cause thumbs sore.

 D. Thumbs suffer a lot by working too much with less blood.

72. We can infer from the passage that __A__.

 A. digital greetings are more and more acceptable.

 B. greeting cards are believed to be out of date.

 C. a woman from Singapore can type 25 text messages in less than 44 seconds.

 D. speed-typing competitions led to some bad results.

73. Which is the proper topic of this passage? C

 A. Text Message.    B. Thumb Problem.    C. Thumb Culture     D. Speed-typing Competition.

Key:BBDAC

E  Windsor Castle

Windsor is one of the official home of the British Royal family. Parts of it are open to the public and it is a very popular tourist attraction. It has a long history.

Windsor Castle is not quite all that it seems. It has the appearance, especially from a distance, a fortress (castle) of Middle Ages. But much of the structure, especially on the side that faces the park, actually dates from periods of re-building in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. And although the Castle was certainly intended for military purposes, royal lodgings had already been built within the walls as early as the 13th century; they have been extended ever since. Inside the Castle, too. Is one of the finest examples of religious architecture in Britain, St George’s Chapel?

In Fact, Windsor has only been the scene of military action twice- in each case a siege(围困), and within only 22 years of each other, in 1193 and 1215.

The Castle began life in 1070. It was one of the Chain of fortications built around London by Normans to control the southeast of England. Its commanding position, on a hill overlooking the River Thames, seems the natural place for the principal building in the area. But that was not always the case. Before the Castle had even been thought of, there was a royal hunting lodge(临时小屋) close to the river, in what is now known as Old Windsor. And before that, the Benedictine abbey at Chertsey-founded in 666-had been the grandest building for miles around. Unlike the Castle, however, both hunting lodge and abbey have long since disappeared.

74.   Why does Windsor Castle look older than it really is? A

A.     Because much of the Castle’s structure was built in an old style in more recent time.

B.      Because it was built many years ago.

C.     Because it was re-built again.

D.     Because it was built in 1070.

75.   What was Windsor Castle built for? B

A.             It was originally built only as a place for the Royal Family to live.

B.              It was intended for military purposes.

C.                   It was built for all the people in the city to live

D.             It was built for keeping the prisoners in it.

76.   At what time did the Castle began to build? D

A.             It was first built in the 17th century.

B.              It was first built in the 13th century.

C.             It was first built in 1193.

D.                   It was first built in the 11th century.

77.   All of the following are true except ____B__.

A.             It had a commanding position overlooking the river.

B.              Its location was weak because it was too far from the river.

C.             Windsor Castle is a most popular tourist attraction in Britain.

D.             Windsor Castle was surrounded in 1215.

78.   Which of the following is True according to the passage? D

A.             The Castle is the oldest known building in the area.

B.                    England controlled the southeast and defeated Normans.

C.                   Windsor Castle is completely open to the tourists.

D.             A royal hunting lodge and an Abbey existed in the area before the

Castle was built.

第四讲:高考高频词汇:

 1. portion n. 一部分    2. target n. 目标,靶子 vt. 瞄准   3. portable a. 手提式的4. decline v. 拒绝,谢绝;下降       5. illusion n. 错觉             6. likelihood n. 可能,可能性7. stripe n. 条纹   8. emphasize vt. 强调,着重  9. emotion n. 情感,感情10. emotional a. 感情的,情绪(上)的  11. awful a. 极坏的,威严的,可怕的12. awkward a. 笨拙的,棘手的  13. clue n. 线索,提示  14. collision n. 碰撞,冲突 15. device n. 装置,设备 16. devise vt. 发明,策划,想出  17. inevitable a. 不可避免的  18. naval a. 海军的  19. navigation n. 20. necessity n. 必需品;必要性 21. previous a. ,,以前的   22. provision n. [pl.]给养,口粮;准备,设备,装置23. pursue vt. 追逐;追求;从事,进行24. stale a. 不新鲜的,陈腐的25. substitute n. 代用品 vt. 代替26. deserve vt. 应受,应得,值得27. discrimination n. 歧视;辨别力28. professional a. 职业的,专门的 29. secure a. 安全的,可靠的     30. security n. 安全,保障    31. scratch v./n. ,,32. talent n. 才能,天资;人才33. insurance n. 保险,保险费 34. insure vt. ...保险,保证,确保 35. nevertheless ad. 仍然,然而,不过  36. neutral a. 中立的,中性的37. spot  n. 地点;斑点 vt. 认出,发现;玷污 38. spray v. ,(使)溅散39. medium a. 中等的,适中的 n. 媒介物,新闻媒介40. media n. 新闻传媒41. auxiliary a. 辅助的,备用的42. automatic a. 自动的43. compete vi. 竞争,比赛44. competent a. 有能力的,能胜任的45. competition n. 竞争,比赛46. distribute vt. 分发  47. disturb vt. 打搅,妨碍  48. infer v. 推论,推断 49. integrate v.(使)成为一体,(使)合并50. moist a. 潮湿51. moisture n. 潮湿 52. promote vt. 促进;提升53. region n. 地区;范围;幅度54. register v./n.登记,注册55. stable a. 稳定的56. sophisticated a. 老于世故的,老练的;很复杂的57. splendid a. 极好的,壮丽的,辉煌的58. cancel vt. 取消,废除59. variable a. 易变的,可变的60. prospect n. 前景,前途;景象61. prosperity n.兴旺,繁荣62. aspect n. 方面;朝向;面貌63. cope vi. (with)(成功地)应付,处理64. core n. 果心,核心65. maintain vt. 维持,保持;坚持,主张66. mainland n. 大陆67. discipline n. 纪律;惩罚;学科68. domestic a. 本国的,国内的;家用的;家庭的69. constant a. 不变的,恒定的 n. 常数 70. cliff n. 悬崖,峭壁 71. authority n. 权威;当局72. audio a. 听觉73. attitude n. 态度74. community n. 社区,社会75. commit vt.犯(错误,罪行等),干(坏事等)76. comment n./vt. 评论77. distinguish vt. 区分,辨别78. distress n. 痛苦,悲伤 vt. 使痛苦79. facility n. [pl.] 设备,设施;便利,方便80. faculty n.能力,技能;,学科/;全体教员81. mixture n. 混合,混合物82. mood n. 心情,情绪;语气83. moral a. 道德上的,有道德的84. prominent a. 突出的85. substance n. 物质;实质86. substantial a. 可观的;牢固的;实质的87. prompt vt. 促使 a. 敏捷的,及时的88. vivid a. 生动的89. vocabulary n. 词汇(量);词汇表90. venture n. 风险投资,风险项目 v. 冒险;取于91. version n. 版本,译本;说法92. waist n. ,腰部93. weld v./n. 焊接94. yawn vi. 打哈欠95. yield vi. (to)屈服于;让出,放弃 n. 产量96. zone n. 地区,区域97. strategy n. 战略,策略98. strategic a. 战略(上)的,关键的99. tense a. 紧张的 v. 拉紧 n. 时态100. tension n. 紧张(状态),张力

最后,希望同学们能从上面所讲述方法中,能有所启发、对提高你的英语成绩有所帮助。



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